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Open access

Ludwika Kosińska and Marek Rejman

Abstract

This paper describes the concept of didactic communication and verifies the course of teaching selected disciplines of water based recreation, i.e. swimming (at the standard technique level), handling a sailing boat whilst undertaking simple manoeuvres, and the basics of diving. At the same time, research in the area of experiments conducted in the field of teaching methods of these disciplines was reviewed in terms of teaching effectiveness, as well as the health and safety of the participants, and ways of communicating while in, on and under the water. Communication between an instructor and a student in any environment which is different from the norm, is difficult owing to its specificity. Additionally, teaching skills on, in or under water requires strict observance of safety rules. Lack of student’s readiness to act in a different water environment, be that based on anxiety or fear, may interfere with or, even prevent didactic communication. Consequently, the effectiveness of teaching decreases. The aim of this work is to search for innovative forms of information transfer that will enable a permanent change in the student’s behaviour, especially when acting in a difficult environment – on the water, in the water and under the water. There are premises to believe that immediate verbal instruction and emphasising the metalinguistic function in it should improve the quality and effectiveness of the process of teaching activities in various water based environments.

Open access

Paweł Słomiński and Aleksandra Nowacka

Abstract

Introduction. The improvement of outcomes in sport requires the creation of appropriate conditions for training and the search for more effective forms of its organisation and effective technology. Starting with this belief, the aim of the work is to identify the size and structure of the training loads and determine the effectiveness of the training process of an elite athlete in the Olympic macrocycle (2004-2008). Material and methods. We analysed loads in the four-year training cycle from 2004 to 2008. The parameters of the loads relating to the intensity (T1-T5) and type of training (general, special, and specific) were analysed. The present study also attempted to assess the impact of the work on the results obtained. Due to the nature of the competitive effort, we used the measurable parameter of distance (m, km) in the load analysis depending on the type and intensity of the physical effort. Results. This work reports on the implementation of a specially designed four-year training programme. The material gathered and the conclusions resulting from its analysis have made it possible to identify organisational and training solutions suitable for the athletic proficiency phase. The analysis of training loads indicated that in the training of a highly skilled swimmer, the general work is particularly important and that the largest volume was realised in the second intensity range (T2). Conclusions. The positive training and competition outcomes were the result of a deliberate training process. The training proved to be effective, leading to an increase in the athlete’s training status. This was achieved primarily owing to the training loads, which were accurately planned and implemented according to the special requirements of the race distance and the individual characteristics of the swimmer.

Open access

Joaquín Gil, Luis-Millán Moreno, Juan Mahiques and Víctor Muñoz

Analysis on the Time and Frequency Domains of the Acceleration in Front Crawl Stroke

The swimming involves accelerations and decelerations in the swimmer's body. Thus, the main objective of this study is to make a temporal and frequency analysis of the acceleration in front crawl swimming, regarding the gender and the performance. The sample was composed by 31 male swimmers (15 of high-level and 16 of low-level) and 20 female swimmers (11 of high-level and 9 of low-level). The acceleration was registered from the third complete cycle during eight seconds in a 25 meters maximum velocity test. A position transducer (200Hz) was used to collect the data, and it was synchronized to an aquatic camera (25Hz). The acceleration in the temporal (root mean square, minimum and maximum of the acceleration) and frequency (power peak, power peak frequency and spectral area) domains was calculated with Fourier analysis, as well as the velocity and the spectrums distribution in function to present one or more main peaks (type 1 and type 2). A one-way ANOVA was used to establish differences between gender and performance. Results show differences between genders in all the temporal domain variables (p<0.05) and only the Spectral Area (SA) in the frequency domain (p<0.05). Between gender and performance, only the Root Mean Square (RMS) showed differences in the performance of the male swimmers (p<0.05) and in the higher level swimmers, the Maximum (Max) and the Power Peak (PP) of the acceleration showed differences between both genders (p<0.05). These results confirms the importance of knowing the RMS to determine the efficiency of the swimmers regarding gender and performance level

Restricted access

Amador García-Ramos, Katja Tomazin, Belén Feriche, Vojko Strojnik, Blanca de la Fuente, Javier Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Boro Strumbelj and Igor Štirn

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the correlation of different dry land strength and power tests with swimming start performance. Twenty international level female swimmers (age 15.3 ± 1.6 years, FINA point score 709.6 ± 71.1) performed the track freestyle start. Additionally, dry land tests were conducted: a) squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), b) squat jumps with additional resistance equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of swimmers’ body weight [BW]), and c) leg extension and leg flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Correlations between dry land tests and start times at 5, 10 and 15 m were quantified through Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients (r). The peak bar velocity reached during the jumps with additional resistance was the variable most correlated to swimming start performance (r = -0.57 to -0.66 at 25%BW; r = -0.57 to -0.72 at 50%BW; r = -0.59 to -0.68 at 75%BW; r = -0.50 to - 0.64 at 100%BW). A few significant correlations between the parameters of the SJ and the CMJ with times of 5 and 10 m were found, and none with the isometric variables. The peak velocity reached during jumps with external loads relative to BW was found a good indicator of swimming start performance.

Open access

Jarosław Pasek, Alicja Wołyńska-Ślężyńska, Jan Ślężyński, Tomasz Pasek, Anna Witiuk-Misztalska and Aleksander Sieroń

Znaczenie pływania korekcyjnego i ćwiczeń w wodzie w fizjoterapii

Zastosowanie pływania jako jednego ze środków nowoczesnego leczenia zyskuje coraz większą popularność. Pływanie korekcyjno-lecznicze oraz ćwiczenia w wodzie są jedną z niewielu form ruchowych w sporcie i fizjoterapii, które umozliwiają harmonijne rozwijanie całego ciała z minimalnym ryzykiem urazowości. Korzyści płynące z tej formy aktywności ruchowej powinny zachęcić do nauki pływania i wykonywania świczeń w wodzie bez względu na stopień niepełnosprawności ruchowej. Niniejsze opracowanie ma za zadanie przybliżyć czytelnikom podstawy metodologiczne i korzyści lecznicze tej formy aktywności ruchowej. Omówiono równiez wybrane formy i metody leczniczych zajęć ruchowych w wodzie.

Open access

Kevin Moran, Robert Podstawski, Stefan Mańkowski, Dariusz Choszcz and Zoran Sarevic

Abstract

Despite the popularity of aquatic recreation and its well-promoted prophylactic and therapeutic values, not a lot is known about how socio-cultural background influences the acquisition of water competency. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of socio-economic and environmental factors on the swimming and rescue skills of male university students (n = 521) aged 19-20 years residing in the Region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland.

An anonymous questionnaire was used as a diagnostic tool to elicit information on participants’ social backgrounds (such as parental income and level of education). Participants provided self-estimates of swimming and rescue competency that included non-stop distance swimming, familiarity with selected swimming strokes, and their estimated rescue ability.

The results suggest that students’ self-estimated swimming competency, the distance they could swim non-stop, and the capacity to swim various strokes increased in association with higher levels of educational background of the father, higher levels of monthly income, and increased size of residential agglomeration. The level of rescue skills also improved with increases in the educational background of both parents, the size of residential agglomeration, and the monthly budget. No significant differences were found in rescue competency levels when analyzed by the mothers’ educational experience. Levels of both swimming and rescue competencies were lower than those reported in comparable studies.

Socio-economic status (such as a lack of discretionary time and income for families with a lower socio-economic status) and place of residence (such as lack of facilities in small villages and towns) mediated the opportunity to acquire water competencies or gain experience with aquatic activity. Methods for addressing socio-economic barriers to the acquisition of swimming and rescue competency are discussed and recommendations for further research are made.

Open access

Daniel Marinho, Tiago Barbosa, Abel Rouboa and António Silva

The Hydrodynamic Study of the Swimming Gliding: a Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

Nowadays the underwater gliding after the starts and the turns plays a major role in the overall swimming performance. Hence, minimizing hydrodynamic drag during the underwater phases should be a main aim during swimming. Indeed, there are several postures that swimmers can assume during the underwater gliding, although experimental results were not conclusive concerning the best body position to accomplish this aim. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the effect in hydrodynamic drag forces of using different body positions during gliding through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. For this purpose, two-dimensional models of the human body in steady flow conditions were studied. Two-dimensional virtual models had been created: (i) a prone position with the arms extended at the front of the body; (ii) a prone position with the arms placed alongside the trunk; (iii) a lateral position with the arms extended at the front and; (iv) a dorsal position with the arms extended at the front. The drag forces were computed between speeds of 1.6 m/s and 2 m/s in a two-dimensional Fluent® analysis. The positions with the arms extended at the front presented lower drag values than the position with the arms aside the trunk. The lateral position was the one in which the drag was lower and seems to be the one that should be adopted during the gliding after starts and turns.

Open access

Spilios Messinis, Nikos Beidaris, Spyros Messinis, Helen Soultanakis, Petros Botonis and Theodoros Platanou

Abstract

The use of swimming aids during training contributes to greater swimming efficiency by the improvement of the swimming specific power of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to compare the swimming stroke technical characteristics and the physiological responses of swimming 100-m backstroke, with and without the use of paddles at maximum and sub-maximum intensities at the same swimming speed. Eight swimmers competing at the national level participated in this study. The measurements took place at 4 different sessions. At every session, each participant swam individually one 100-m backstroke swimming trial with or without paddles at the same speed and two levels of intensity (100% and 85% of maximum speed). The results revealed lower stroke length, greater stroke number and gliding length without the use of swimming paddles at both intensities. Βlood lactate concentration (10.03±2.96 vs. 5.85±2.23 mmol/l) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (17.43±2.07 vs. 12±2.82) were greater without the use of swimming paddles only at 100% of maximum speed. Thus, swimming backstroke with paddles compared to unaided swimming, at a similar speed, showed a greater efficiency at maximal but not at sub-maximal intensity.

Open access

Pedro Morouço, Henrique Neiva, Juan González-Badillo, Nuno Garrido, Daniel Marinho and Mário Marques

Associations Between Dry Land Strength and Power Measurements with Swimming Performance in Elite Athletes: a Pilot Study

The main aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between dry land strength and power measurements with swimming performance. Ten male national level swimmers (age: 14.9 ± 0.74 years, body mass: 60.0 ± 6.26 kg, height: 171.9 ± 6.26, 100 m long course front crawl performance: 59.9 ± 1.87 s) volunteered as subjects. Height and Work were estimated for CMJ. Mean power in the propulsive phase was assessed for squat, bench press (concentric phase) and lat pull down back. Mean force production was evaluated through 30 s maximal effort tethered swimming in front crawl using whole body, arms only and legs only. Swimming velocity was calculated from a maximal bout of 50 m front crawl. Height of CMJ did not correlate with any of the studied variables. There were positive and moderate-strong associations between the work during CMJ and mean propulsive power in squat with tethered forces during whole body and legs only swimming. Mean propulsive power of bench press and lat pull down presented positive and moderate-strong relationships with mean force production in whole body and arms only. Swimming performance is related with mean power of lat pull down back. So, lat pull down back is the most related dry land test with swimming performance; bench press with force production in water arms only; and work during CMJ with tethered forces legs only.

Open access

Karla de Jesus, Helon V. H. Ayala, Kelly de Jesus, Leandro dos S. Coelho, Alexandre I.A. Medeiros, José A. Abraldes, Mário A.P. Vaz, Ricardo J. Fernandes and João Paulo Vilas-Boas

Abstract

Our aim was to compare non-linear and linear mathematical model responses for backstroke start performance prediction. Ten swimmers randomly completed eight 15 m backstroke starts with feet over the wedge, four with hands on the highest horizontal and four on the vertical handgrip. Swimmers were videotaped using a dual media camera set-up, with the starts being performed over an instrumented block with four force plates. Artificial neural networks were applied to predict 5 m start time using kinematic and kinetic variables and to determine the accuracy of the mean absolute percentage error. Artificial neural networks predicted start time more robustly than the linear model with respect to changing training to the validation dataset for the vertical handgrip (3.95 ± 1.67 vs. 5.92 ± 3.27%). Artificial neural networks obtained a smaller mean absolute percentage error than the linear model in the horizontal (0.43 ± 0.19 vs. 0.98 ± 0.19%) and vertical handgrip (0.45 ± 0.19 vs. 1.38 ± 0.30%) using all input data. The best artificial neural network validation revealed a smaller mean absolute error than the linear model for the horizontal (0.007 vs. 0.04 s) and vertical handgrip (0.01 vs. 0.03 s). Artificial neural networks should be used for backstroke 5 m start time prediction due to the quite small differences among the elite level performances.