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Open access

Anna Ogonowska, Elżbieta Hübner-Woźniak, Andrzej Kosmol and Wilhelm Gromisz

Anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers

Study aim: To assess the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles of male and female swimmers by applying two exercise tests.

Material and methods: Male and female swimmers (n = 9 and 6, respectively), aged 19 - 23 years and having training experience of over 10 years, were subjected to two tests: 30-s Wingate for upper extremities and semitethered swimming test. The following variables were determined: body fat content (from 4 skinfolds), maximum power output, heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) concentration in blood.

Results: Relative power outputs in the Wingate test and swimming force in semi-tethered swimming test (maximum and mean) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in male than in the female swimmers. Maximum LA concentrations were higher in male than in female swimmers, but maximum LA values related to relative power output were in both genders alike. Maximum force produced in the semi-tethered swimming test was strongly (r = 0.765; p<0.001) correlated with maximum relative power output in the Wingate test.

Conclusions: Both tests may be interchangeably applied to determine the anaerobic capacity of upper extremity muscles in swimmers.

Open access

Ryszard Zarzeczny, Mariusz Kuberski, Agnieszka Deska, Dorota Zarzeczna and Katarzyna Rydz

Abstract

Purpose. It has been suggested that the critical swimming speed (CSS ) of young swimmers may be estimated by using two timed maximum exertion efforts at distances of 50 and 400 m. The aim of this study was to find out if the estimated CSS for a group of boy swimmers corresponds to the results obtained from a 12-min swim test and to examine if there was a difference whether these tests were completed using different swimming strokes. Methods. The study was carried out on 24 boys (age 12.2 ± 0.1 y, height 158.0 ± 1.8 cm, weight 47.7 ± 2.2 kg), all of whom were competing at the regional level. The participants were timed completing the 50 and 400 m distances at maximal effort, while the 12-min test was assessed by the total distance swum, all three trials performed in the front crawl and breaststroke. Results. The results found a close relationship between CSS determined by the 50 and 400 m distances and the distance covered during the 12-min test for both strokes (breaststroke r = 0.79, p = 0.0000; front crawl r = 0.83, p = 0.0000). There were no significant differences between CSS and the mean velocity of the 12-min swim test with swum in the front crawl (0.862 ± 0.027 m · s-1 and 0.851 ± 0.027 m · s-1, respectively); however, CSS was significantly higher (p = 0.002) than the mean velocity found in the 12-min test in the breaststroke (0.769 ± 0.018 m · s-1 and 0.727 ± 0.022 m · s-1, respectively). Conclusions. CSS estimated on the basis of the front crawl but not breaststroke is a good predictor of the average velocity of the 12-min swim test for young male swimmers.

Open access

Binoy Kampmark

Abstract

This article considers the cultural and social crisis facing the sporting celebrity, with specific reference to the Australian athlete in the field of swimming. In that sense, this paper argues that parallels in other political systems for ruthless, sustained success, and the loss occasioned by it to individual sports figures, should be considered. Liberal democracies can still be perpetrating systems of sporting depression and mental illness, undermining their representatives in a relentless drive for performance and medals. The problem lies in what might be best described as a sporting industrial complex, one that emerged in Australia with the professionalization of sports.

Open access

K. Wolska, P. Szweda, K. Lada, E. Rytel, K. Gucwa, B. Kot and M. Piechota

Abstract

The molecular-typing strategy, ERIC-PCR was used in an attempt to determine the genomic relationship of 28 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from faeces of healthy bovine, bovine mastitis and from faeces of hospital patients as well as from environment. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed large molecular differentiation within this group of isolates. Twenty two out of 28 strains tested generated unique patterns of DNA bands and only three genotypes consisted of two isolates each were identified. We also tested the P. aeruginosa isolates for their ability to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces including polyvinylchloride and polystyrene. Different biofilm-forming abilities were demonstrated among strains; however, most of them (64.3%) showed moderate-biofilm forming ability. The strains with increased swimming and twitching motility displayed elevated biofilm formation. However, a negative correlation was found between slime and initial biofilm production. On the basis of the results obtained, we suggest that there are no major differences in phenotypic properties between P. aeruginosa strains isolated from different sources

Open access

Jairo Silva, Amandio Geraldes, Antônio Natali, João Pereira, Rodrigo Vale and Estélio Dantas

Acute Effects of Swimming on the Arterial Pressure of Hypertensive Adults

Aim. The purpose of this work was to verify the acute effects of a regular swimming programme on the arterial pressure of hypertensive adults.

Material and methods. The sample was composed of 26 individuals who presented mild to moderate hypertension. The subjects were divided into two groups: the Experimental Group (EG) comprising 13 subjects (four men and nine women) and the Control Group (CG) comprising 13 subjects (seven men and six women), with average ages of 38.40 ± 8.24 and 38.36 ± 8.96 years, respectively. GE individuals took part in a regular swimming programme consisting of three weekly fifty-minute sessions of training (ST) for 10 weeks, whereas GC individuals were instructed not to alter their physical activity and nutritional habits. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine statistical significance (p < 0.05).

Results. At the end of the ten weeks, an increase of 4.8% in Systolic Blood Pressure at rest (from 133.67 ±2.26 to 138.56 ± 3.23) and an increase of 7.8% in Diastolic Blood Pressure (from 83.15 ± 1.50 to 89.67 ± 7.19) were observed.

Conclusion. The results allow us to conclude that a regular swimming programme, consisting of training sessions three times a week for 10 weeks, was not sufficient to significantly alter the acute pressure levels of hypertensive adults.

Open access

Damian Jerszyński, Katarzyna Antosiak-Cyrak, Małgorzata Habiera, Krystian Wochna and Elżbieta Rostkowska

The study aimed to examine changes in selected angular characteristics and duration of the stroke cycle in the back crawl and the front crawl in children learning to swim. Nine boys and two girls, aged 8-13 years, performed seven consecutive swimming tests. The children’s movement technique was recorded with the use of three video cameras. The studied parameters included the angle of incidence between the trunk long axis and the waterline, elbow angle, shoulders roll, stroke cycle duration and stroke length. The results illustrate the development of swimming technique in youth swimmers. The results of the present study indicate the variability and phasing of learning of swimming technique by children.

Open access

Nicolas Olivier and Frédéric N. Daussin

Abstract

Swimming and throwing are involved in water-polo player performance. These movements have a common biomechanical basis in the use of the internal shoulder rotation and adductor muscles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between shoulder isokinetic evaluation and throwing velocity as well as swimming performance in female water-polo players. Fifteen high level water-polo players completed two isokinetic shoulder evaluations to determine peak torque of shoulder rotators of the dominant shoulder (concentric and eccentric movements at an angular velocity of 60°·s-1 and concentric movements at an angular velocity of 240°·s-1) and shoulder extensors of both arms (concentric movements at an angular velocity of 60°·s-1 and 240°·s-1). Throwing velocity was measured using a radar gun placed 5 m behind the goal post. Front crawl swimming velocity was determined at 25 m, 100 m and 400 m distances. Concentric peak torque at 60°·s-1 and 240°·s-1 of internal rotators and eccentric peak torque at 60°·s-1 of external rotators were predictors of throwing velocity. The best model to explain the relationship between isokinetic evaluations and throwing velocity was obtained with concentric IR peak torque at 60°·s-1 and eccentric ER peak torque at 60°·s-1 (r2 = 0.52, p = 0.012). Relative total work done and peak torque of shoulder extensors were predictors of 25 m swimming velocity. Shoulder isokinetic evaluations correlate significantly with swimming performance and throwing velocity of female water-polo players. The results may help coaches to develop new strategies such as eccentric dry land training programs to increase both shoulder external rotators strength and throwing velocity.

Open access

Krystyna Zatoń and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

The present research attempts to ascertain the impact of immediate verbal feedback (IVF) on modifications of stroke length (SL). In all swimming styles, stroke length is considered an essential kinematic parameter of the swimming cycle. It is important for swimming mechanics and energetics. If SL shortens while the stroke rate (SR) remains unchanged or decreases, the temporal-spatial structure of swimming is considered erroneous. It results in a lower swimming velocity. Our research included 64 subjects, who were divided into two groups: the experimental - E (n=32) and the control - C (n=32) groups. A pretest and a post-test were conducted. The subjects swam the front crawl over the test distance of 25m at Vmax. Only the E group subjects were provided with IVF aiming to increase their SL. All tests were filmed by two cameras (50 samples•s-1). The kinematic parameters of the swimming cycle were analyzed using the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software (SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D GmbH, Germany). The movement analysis allowed to determine the average horizontal swimming velocity over 15 meters. The repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey range test demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between the two groups in terms of SL and swimming velocity. IVF brought about a 6.93% (Simi method) and a 5.09% (Hay method) increase in SL, as well as a 2.92% increase in swimming velocity.

Open access

Nuno Amaro, Daniel A. Marinho, Nuno Batalha, Mário C. Marques and Pedro Morouço

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach's Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force.

Open access

Athanasios A. Dalamitros, Vasiliki Manou, Kosmas Christoulas and Spiros Kellis

Abstract

Previous studies demonstrated significant increases in the shoulder internal rotators’ peak torque values and unilateral muscular imbalances of the shoulder rotators after a competitive swim period. However, there are no similar data concerning the knee muscles. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a six-month training period on knee flexor and extensor peak torque values, examine a possible bilateral strength deficit and evaluate the unilateral strength balance in competitive swimmers. Eleven male adolescent swimmers (age: 14.82 ± 0.45 years) were tested for concentric knee extension and flexion peak torque (60°/s) with an isokinetic dynamometer, before and after a regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period. A trend towards greater improvements in the knee extensor compared to flexor muscles peak torque was observed. Furthermore, the bilateral strength deficit remained almost unchanged, whereas unilateral strength imbalance was increased for both limbs. However, all results were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). According to the data presented, a six-month regular combined swim and dry-land strength training period caused non-significant alterations for all the parameters evaluated during isokinetic testing. This study highlights the fact that competitive adolescent swimmers demonstrated unilateral knee strength imbalances throughout a long period of their yearly training macrocycle.