This paper endeavours to highlight three aspects of postmodern landscape design: theoretical basis, composition and design elements. Postmodern theories, philosophy influenced the language of the postmodern landscape architecture and got materialized in the use of narratives, eclecticism, the Rhizome-principle. Postmodern landscape composition can be associated with anti-hierarchy, unusual structures, landforms, and playful moods. Postmodern design elements consist of the strong graphical use of colour and pavements, bizarre water features, unusual structures and buildings, postmodern sculptures and thematic garden details. 25 analysed projects try to capture the essence of postmodernism in landscape architecture as well as to reveal points of intersection within these projects.
Purpose: This article explores the gap in the business history literature devoted to Central and Eastern Europe and discusses the potential of conducting business history research in Poland. Methodology: This is an explorative and tentative study based on a recently developed database of 387 Polish companies which are more than 100 years old. Findings: The article explores the reasons behind the lack of business history debate in the Polish academia and discusses its future potential. We argue that given the size of population and a unique historical context, the Polish sample is worth studying as it can provide valuable contributions to well established debates in the field of business history debates covering issues such as continuity, longevity, and survival strategies. Research limitations and implications: This is an explorative and tentative study and therefore has several limitations, including a limited scope of companies included in the database, sources of data, and poor quality of corporate archives. Originality and value: This is the first article explicitly discussing the potential of conducting business history studies in the context of empirical data concerning Polish long-lived companies.
Scientists became professionally interested in Polish lakes in the early 1850s. They focused predominantly upon the measurements of depth, observations of water stages, optical properties, and water temperature. The first systematic observations of surface water temperature were carried out in 1956. At present these measurements are conducted in 29 lakes. Investigations of the vertical distribution of water temperature were initiated in the interwar period and they contributed to a better recognition of the processes and factors conditioning dynamics of water masses. In general, measurements of water temperature have constituted fundamental observations with respect to the studies of yearly and daily courses of the temperature of surface water and the entire water mass, the influence of basin morphometry upon water thermal conditions, heat balance and heat resources, thermal conditions of bottom deposits and thermal classification of the lakes. The introduction of automatic gradient probes gave a new impulse to the investigations of water temperature in the lakes. The foundation of the Polish Limnological Society in 2001 and 18 national and international limnological conferences stimulated integration of the circle of limnologists. Specialist journals (Limnological Review, Studia Limnologica et Telmatologica) have presented around 40 publications with the leading theme of water temperature.
Sadly, many great Hungarian engineers have been forgotten, engineers who could be outstanding role models for the young engineers of today. In some aspects Tódor Kármán belongs to these forgotten engineers. For that reason, we examine his life and work in our research. I distinctly refer to the educational system of the era, since his scientific work also originated from this. This essay also explores the most important work and inventions of the great scientist with regard to his space research activities that were way ahead of his time. In this context, I also mention Dr. Antal Bejczy, one of his followers in space research.
After his death an intense struggle ensued for ownership of the relics of Thomas Aquinas. There were both pious and political motives for the desire to possess the bones of the saint. This article introduces the topic by describing the places where Aquinas’ relics can now be found. We then outline Aquinas’ own views on the veneration of relics, which is characterized by an appreciation of the practice but with great caution to avoid superstition. An historical overview of the fate of Aquinas’ relics sheds light on their significance, particularly in light of the canonization process. The final reflection considers the fate of Aquinas’ relics in light of his own theology.
Attila Tóth, Axel Timpe, Richard Stiles, Doris Damyanovic, István Valánszki, Alena Salašová, Agata Cieszewska and Elizabeth Brabec
Though often overlooked due to its scale, small sacral Christian architecture has a significant importance in cultural landscapes in Europe and beyond. It represents a shared international cultural heritage and is significant in its diversity, distribution and abundance across cultural landscapes. The tradition of the artistic depiction of the cross in Christianity dates back to the 4th century AD. The first monuments in the form of crosses were placed in open landscapes in Scotland in the 7th century. The most important period for the spread of small sacral architecture of Catholic origin in eastern Europe was during the Baroque, thus most of the preserved small sacral monuments date back to the late 17th,18th and 19th centuries. They are often accompanied by monumental single trees or a compositionally organised group of trees and create a sacred composition of nature and culture. They have become important landmarks, indicators of place and landscape features of spatial organization, representing a significant historical legacy and cultural heritage for future generations. This article elaborates on the origin, historical development and landscape values of small sacral Christian architecture, as well as their relation to separate natural monuments or natural features that create part of the sacral composition, such as memorial trees growing around them. This article introduces the topic of sacral architecture and its contribution to the character and identity of European cultural landscapes.
This article focuses on media debates about interracial and interethnic marriage practices. In 2012, Danish immigrants and descendants, especially Muslim women, were accused of harming the integration processes as they were not marrying ethnically Danish men. Through analysis of newspaper articles and Internet debates the article shows how Muslim women became excluded from the national community in these debates. Drawing upon previous debates about interracial/ethnic relationships, the article illustrates how the contemporary criticism mirrors historical criticism of sexuality. Moreover, the 2012 debate provides new insights and reveals how we need to nuance previous understandings of interracial relations.
Szeged situated at the confluence of the Tisza and the Maros Rivers has been exposed to significant flood risk for centuries due to its low elevation and its location on the low floodplain level. After the Ottoman (Turkish) occupation of Hungary (ended in 1686), secondary sources often reported that the town was affected by devastating floods which entered the area from north, and a great part of the town or its whole area was inundated. Natural and artificial infill reduced the flood risk to some extent after the town had been founded, but in the 19th century flood risk was mitigated by river engineering and the reconstruction of the town. The town relief was raised by a huge amount of sediment, which makes it difficult to determine the elevation of the original relief as well as the exact flood risk of the study area. However, some engineering surveys originating from the 19th century contain hundreds of levelling data in a dense control point network making possible to model the relief of the whole town preceding its reconstruction and ground infill. Based on these data, we prepared a relief model which was compared with the known data of the 1772 flood peak, from which we deduced that 60% of the town must have been inundated before it was filled up. As there could have been 50-100 cm thick natural or artificial ground infill since the 11th century, the original natural relief can be gained by deducting these data. Based on this deduction, the extent of inundation centuries ago could reach 85%, which means almost total flooding.
The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.