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Honey between traditional uses and recent medicine

Abstract

From ancient times, honey was not only used as a natural sweetener but also as a healing agent. Many health-promoting and curative properties attributed to it are the basis for some traditional folk medicine treatments throughout the world today.

Its beneficial effects in different disorders, rediscovered in recent decades , varying from its antibacterial effects and benefits in wound healing to its safe role in peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, oncology, ophthalmology, dermatology and dental hygiene. This will be discussed in this review on the basis of a series of scientific studies conducted to investigate the therapeutic properties of this natural product

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Theorem from My Life with Psychology

Abstract

A concise autohistoric view of the scientific psychological activity in the Slovak Academy of Sciences during the socialist totalitarian regime, and following the rebirth of democracy. Dominant experimental-laboratory psychology was then followed by empiric-life psychology. Some of the main results from both research approaches are presented, as well as theoretical-methodological syntheses. At present, the author focuses on „oral psychology” because it helps in interpreting the real development of psychology in Czecho-Slovakia. We propose to complement the international symposiums „Child in need” with similar events in the context of „Child in cultivation”.

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Evidence of Things Seen: Univocation, Visibility and Reassurance in Post-Reformation Polemic

Abstract

This article reaches out to the audience for controversial religious writing after the English Reformation, by examining the shared language of attainable truth, of clarity and certainty, to be found in Protestant and Catholic examples of the same. It argues that we must consider those aspects of religious controversy that lie simultaneously above and beneath its doctrinal content: the logical forms in which it was framed, and the assumptions writers made about their audiences’ needs and responses. Building on the work of Susan Schreiner and others on the notion of certainty through the early Reformation, the article asks how English polemicists exalted and opened up that notion for their readers’ benefit, through proclamations of visibility, accessibility and honest dealing. Two case studies are chosen, in order to make a comparison across confessional lines: first, Protestant (and Catholic) reactions against the Jesuit doctrine of equivocation in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, which emphasized honesty and encouraged fear of hidden meaning; and second, Catholic opposition to the notion of an invisible-or relatively invisible-church. It is argued that the language deployed in opposition to these ideas displays a shared emphasis on the clear, certain, and reliable, and that which might be attained by human means. Projecting the emphases and assertions of these writers onto their audience, and locating it within a contemporary climate, the article thus questions the emphasis historians of religion place on the intangible-on faith-in considering the production and the reception of Reformation controversy.

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The First Serbian Dermatovenereologist - Jevrem Žujović

Abstract

In the early 19th century, after several centuries of slavery, Serbia was liberated and along with the overall organization of the country, health services were formed. The first specialists appeared at the end of the century, among them our first dermatovenereologist, Dr. Jevrem Žujović. He was born in 1860 in Belgrade. He attended high school in Belgrade and in 1885 he graduated from School of Medicine in Paris. Dr. Žujović specialized in dermatovenereology in Paris, with Prof. Fournier as his mentor. He was the first Head of the Department of Skin Diseases and Syphilis at the General Public Hospital since 1889. He organized specialized services all over Serbia. His activity in the work of the Serbian Medical Society was very appreciated. Dr. Žujović studied endemic syphilis and leprosy, and translated A. Fournier’s book “Syphilis and Marriage”, and Loraine’s “Prostitution and Degeneration”. Together with M. Jovanović-Batut, he wrote “Instructions on Syphilis”.

As an Army Medical Officer, Dr. Žujović participated in the Serbo-Bulgarian war (1885), the First and the Second Balkan War and in the First World War (1912 - 1918). He was the vice-president of the Society of the Red Cross of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the first president of the newly-founded Association of Dermatovenereologists of Yugoslavia. He was a recipient of many awards and decorations. Jevrem Žujović retired in 1927, and passed away in 1944.

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Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)

Czech and Polish Table Tennis Players of Jewish Origin in International Competition (1926-1957)

The beginnings of the 18th century marked the birth of Jewish sport. The most famous athletes of those days were boxers, such as I. Bitton, S. Eklias, B. Aaron, D. Mendoga. Popular sports of this minority group included athletics, fencing and swimming. One of the first sport organizations was the gymnastic society Judische Turnverein Bar Kocha (Berlin - 1896).

Ping-pong as a new game in Europe developed at the turn of the 20th century. Sport and organizational activities in England were covered by two associations: the Ping Pong Association and the Table Tennis Association; they differed, for example, in the regulations used for the game. In 1902, Czeski Sport (a Czech Sport magazine) and Kurier Warszawski (Warsaw's Courier magazine) published first information about this game. In Czech Republic, Ping-pong became popular as early as the first stage of development of this sport worldwide, in 1900-1907. This was confirmed by the Ping-pong clubs and sport competitions. In Poland, the first Ping-pong sections were established in the period 1925-1930. Czechs made their debut in the world championships in London (1926). Poles played for the first time as late as in the 8th world championships in Paris (1933). Competition for individual titles of Czech champions was started in 1927 (Prague) and in 1933 in Poland (Lviv).

In the 1930s, Czechs employed an instructor of Jewish descent from Hungary, Istvan Kelen (world champion in the 1929 mixed games, studied in Prague). He contributed to the medal-winning success of Stanislaw Kolar at the world championships. Jewish players who made history in world table tennis included Trute Kleinowa (Makkabi Brno) - world champion in 1935-1937, who survived imprisonment in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp, Alojzy Ehrlich (Hasmonea Lwów), the three-time world vice-champion (1936, 1937, 1939), also survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Ivan Andreadis (Sparta Praga), nine-time world champion, who was interned during World War II (camp in Kleinstein near Krapkowice).

Table tennis was a sport discipline that was successfully played by female and male players of Jewish origins. They made powerful representations of Austria, Hungary, Romania and Czech Republic and provided the foundation of organizationally strong national federations.

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Teratology – past, present and future

ABSTRACT

Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson´s fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic doseresponse paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called “low dose-hypothesis”, particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural.

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History of wheat breeding in Latvia

History of wheat breeding in Latvia

A gene pool of Latvian winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been created over a very long period, by collection, evaluation and selection of local genetic resources, and investigation of varieties and breeding lines from other countries in the world. It is not only a historical collection, but also serves as the foundation for research and plant breeding. National wheat germplasm is the framework for creating competitive winter and spring wheat varieties of grain with high yield, resistant to lodging and diseases, and quality acceptable for producers in the Baltic agroclimatical region. In Latvia, from 1920 to 1990, the selected wheat varieties were not stable pure lines, but mostly population varieties. After accession to UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants), the requirements for new varieties have changed, and only distinct, uniform and stable varieties, characterised by high economical value are registered in Plant Catalogues. To implement wheat breeding programmes it is necessary to improve breeding methods by plant tissue culture and production of doubled haploids (DH). During 90 years, 16 winter and 11 spring wheat varieties of bread wheat (Tr. aestivum L.) have been created at Priekuļi and Stende and introduced in the market. The achievements of several generations of Latvian wheat breeders are reviewed in this paper.

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Conspiracy Theory as Therapy in Philip Roth’s “The Plot Against America”?

Abstract

By focusing on a passage in Philip Roth’s book, this paper strives to outline how conspiratorial beliefs can have a therapeutic function for the community which has experienced a traumatic event. Fictitious groups depicted in such texts serve as the ultimate causes of humanity’s misgivings: from natural disasters and diseases that plague it to the inherent flaws of political and social systems. Such beliefs, however, are likely to become as dangerous as the cure, a threat Roth hints at in his work. The second part of the paper will look at the viability of conspiracism as a means to address traumatizing issues, in the context of the postmodern condition and the diffusion of motifs until recently present only in the radical texts of popular culture

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The Specificities of the Relationship of the Comparative and the Historical Methods in the Research of Political History

Abstract

This paper discusses the issue of the specificities of the relationship of the comparative and the historical methods in the research of political history. We find examples of the relationship of the comparative and the historical methods in the research of political history in works of modern historiography. Contemporary political history studies various forms of political reality, a variety of themes and those subject to fad, like other branches of history. The analysis has shown that all general scientific methods, particularly the historical method, as well as the comparative method, enable the scientific cognition of social, historical and political phenomena and processes, which also applies to the research of political history.

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