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Open access

Andrzej Macias and Marta Dryjer

Forest Cover Dynamics in the City of Poznań from 1830 to 2004

Forests on the urban areas are of a great importance for the biodiversity of this territory. Moreover, they play numerous functions in the environment and constitute, at present, on important element of the ecological urban system. Nevertheless, the changes of the forest areas in the city of Poznań have never been discussed so far. This article presents the results of research of the changes of forest areas in Poznań within the administrative borders of Poznań in 2004. It was performed for the period 1830-2004 for six selected moments in which topographic maps of this area were prepared i.e. 1830, 1888, 1940, 1960, 1979 and 2004 During this period forest area increased by 2367 ha. The effect of numerous afforestations and deforestations is that forest area which was not subject to these treatments from 1830 to 2004 constitutes only 481 ha (14.6% of forest areas of Poznań). Four periods of dynamics of changes of forest areas were distinguished. During the last one, taking place presently, forest area has decreased slightly. In the case of Poznań, maintaining forests is significant from the point of view of their importance not only for functioning of green wedges but also the whole environment of this city. Therefore, one of the directions of spatial development of the city of Poznań should be maintaining and increasing forest areas as the element of the implementation of sustainable development principles.

Open access

Marcel KLIMENT, Jakub KOČICA and Tomáš KLIMENT

Abstract

Spatial data have become very important phenomena within the last decade in Europe due to a strong support from the political spectrum with regard to related legislation and resulting in financial support to several research, educational, and enlargement projects. INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) Directive indeed defines the principles for the harmonization of spatial data infrastructure in the European community, including Land Use and Land Cover data themes. INSPIRE defines a methodology on how to transform datasets to common data models, but it does not cover the process of data collection and update, because it is out of its scope. Evaluation of the Land Use dataset derived from remote sensing products complemented by fieldworks has been realized since 2006 by Eurostat within the LUCAS (Land Use and Cover Area frame Survey) project. The work presented in this paper follows the LUCAS fieldwork methodology, which was applied during the fieldwork in July 2014 in the City of Zagreb (Croatia), to use at the local (municipal) geoportal level. The surveying groups collected point features with the following data type attributes: Land Use codes defined by HILUCS (Hierarchical INSPIRE Land Use Classification System) and optional Land Cover codes defined by LUCAS classification. In addition, photographs representing the observed areas were collected by cameras embedded in the mobile GIS platforms. An update of original topological layer was performed and Web GIS components for sharing the newly developed datasets were implemented. The results presented provide a suitable proposal for fieldworks methodology and updates of a land use database in line with the INSPIRE directive applicable at a local spatial data infrastructure level.

Open access

Agnes Nemenyi and Ruth Rossier

Cultural and Ethnic Determinants of Land Use and Inheritance in Romania

This paper aims to demonstrate some ethno-cultural specificity in land use and land inheritance by the data of the field survey carried out in four different municipalities in Romania, representing different historical regions where the ethnical composition of the regions is very different. The understanding of land management and agriculture is very different between the groups. The paper presents the data of a project which is the collaboration of a Swiss and a Romanian team in a three-year programme (SCOPES programme of Swiss National Science Foundation), in which a survey was carried out with the help of questionnaires. This was applied in a sample of 612 rural households in four municipalities. The main questions focused on land use and land inheritance as well as agriculture. The sample included two generations: the parents and their children (362), men and women. The research team looked for an answer to the question: "who are the next generation farmers in Romania and are there cultural and ethnic and also gender-based differences between rural families?" As the data show there are four different strategies applied in the four regions. In one, traditional sustainable agriculture was preserved, combined with a high rate of international migration. In another village there is a good perspective for farming, but a lot of young people are going to other sectors of activities. In the third location the former socialist cooperative was transformed into a new type of agricultural cooperative. This region has the best developmental perspectives. In the fourth region agricultural activity is maintained and the local economy also includes other types of activities which are complementary to agriculture (trade, industry and other services).

Open access

Stanisław Lewiński and Karol Zaremski

Abstract

Information about the types of land cover and its use is obtained by the visual interpretation of the color composite of satellite images or by the use of automatic classification algorithms. For obvious reasons, the automatic classification methods make it possible to obtain information quicker and much faster than the traditional interpretation method.

The commonly used automatic methods of satellite image classification, based on supervised or unsupervised classification algorithms, are the most accurate when used with low resolution images. In the case of images with 1-meter-sized pixels, showing a diversity of land cover forms, it is not possible to obtain satisfactory results.

New classification techniques, based on object-oriented classification algorithms, have been developing for a couple of years now. In contrast to the traditional methods, the new operating procedure does not involve the classification of single pixels, but of entire objects, into which the content of the satellite image is divided. Aside from the spectral values of the pixels, the shape of the objects created by the pixels and the relationships between the objects, are also considered during the analysis. Similar to visual interpretation, variation in the texture of the image can also be taken into account in this case.

The aim of this article is to present the possibility of using high density satellite images in object-oriented classification. The classification presented is that of a high-rise built area in Wrocław and of bridges on the Vistula River in Warsaw.

Open access

Tímea Árgyelán

Abstract

In the last century, rapid transformations, industrialization, urbanization, tertiarization, the boom in services, modern counter-urbanization trends, social mobility, and bigger transport infrastructures could have been seen. The eastern Mediterranean area, located next to the Mediterranean Sea, was one of the most significantly changed parts of the agrarian lands in Europe. The recession left its mark everywhere in Europe. This paper focuses now on the land-use changes of the east coast of Spain, on the Huerta de Valencia. The objective of this paper is to assess spatial changes and to analyse the land-use changes between 2008 and 2013.

Open access

Jan Dygryn, Josef Mitas and Jiri Stelzer

The Influence of Built Environment on Walkability Using Geographic Information System

The main goal of this study was to analyze the residential environment (built environment), by exploring the relationship between neighborhood walkability characteristics using Geographic Information System (GIS) and level of physical activity (PA). A randomly selected sample of 135 adults from Olomouc, Czech Republic was divided into low and high walkability neighborhoods based on the walkability index (calculated using GIS). The average daily number of steps (using Yamax SW-700 pedometer) between the groups also was measured. Result showed that participants living in the high walkable areas took more steps a day than participant in the low walkable areas. Furthermore, the mean body mass index (BMI) level was inversely correlated with the number of steps on weekdays and during the whole week. On weekend days it was still inversed throughout with the number of steps; taken but the but the relationship was not statistically significant.

Open access

Klára Macsinka

Abstract

The article introduces main results of a research about defining parking needs to land use functions on the principles of sustainable mobility. Objective of the research was to find a method of determining differentiated, realistic (and environmentally friendly) parking standards applicable in the practice of urban planning and traffic design. Process of the work is briefly presented. Existing Hungarian practice of determining parking demands for different land use functions and zones is dealt with, pointing out problems, inconsequent issues and necessity of an urgent review. Factors to be taken into consideration (land use type, location within the city structure, accessibility and service level of public transportation system, simultaneity of usage land use zones, etc.) are listed. A model for calculation of realistic parking needs is shown. Needs and possible directions of further research are explained.

Open access

Izabela Chlost and Magda Sikora

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of cartographic materials of the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of changes in the surface water network of the Gardno-Łeba Lowland. The obtained results confirmed that the natural water network was slightly transformed in the first half of the 19th century and considerably increased in the 20th century as a result of agricultural drainage system, especially drainage of wetlands, and river regulations. As a consequence, a hydrographic system with a forced water circulation has developed, that is quite different from the natural. On the one hand, it has become the reason for reversing the proportion in which the groundwater resources have been depleted, along with an increase in the surface water network density, and on the other hand it has caused a change in land use.

Open access

Antoni Grzywna and Joanna Sender

Abstract

The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze), and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń). The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS) software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

Open access

Maria Soja

Abstract

Two different stages of demographic development with successive changes in land- use patterns and directions can be distinguished in the Beskid Niski in Poland during the past 140 years. These stages are separated by tragic events this region experienced in the 1940s (forced population resettlement). The first stage of demographic development is characterised by natural, consecutive changes comparable to other areas in the whole Carpathians. The second stage stretches from the end of World War II until the present day. The ‘revolutionary’ character and changes initiated by this stage are nothing like these observed in other regions of the Polish Carpathians back then as well as presently (except for Bieszczady Mountains). Stemming from rapid demographic processes most changes are observed in land-use and natural environment (unexpectedly halted anthropopression), although they also affect social structures and economic processes specific for mountainous areas.