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Jorge Morais, Mário Costa, Erik Mejias, Daniel Marinho, António Silva and Tiago Barbosa

Morphometric Study for Estimation and Validation of Trunk Transverse Surface Area To Assess Human Drag Force on Water

The aim of this study was to compute and validate estimation equations for the trunk transverse surface area (TTSA) to be used in assessing the swimmer's drag force in both genders. One group of 133 swimmers (56 females, 77 males) was used to compute the estimation equations and another group of 131 swimmers (56 females, 75 males) was used for its validations. Swimmers were photographed in the transverse plane from above, on land, in the upright and hydrodynamic position. The TTSA was measured from the swimmer's photo with specific software. Also measured was the height, body mass, biacromial diameter, chest sagital diameter (CSD) and the chest perimeter (CP). With the first group of swimmers, it was computed the TTSA estimation equations based on stepwise multiple regression models from the selected anthropometrical variables. For males TTSA=6.662*CP+17.019*CSD-210.708 (R2=0.32; Ra 2=0.30; P<0.01) and for females TTSA=7.002*CP+15.382*CSD-255.70 (R2=0.34; Ra 2=0.31; P<0.01). For both genders there were no significant differences between assessed and estimated mean TTSA. Coefficients of determination for the linear regression models between assessed and estimated TTSA were R2=0.39 for males and R2=0.55 for females. More than 80% of the plots were within the 95% interval confidence for the Bland-Altman analysis in both genders.

Open access

Daniel López-Plaza, Fernando Alacid, Pedro A. López-Miñarro and José M. Muyor

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different sizes of hand paddles on kinematic parameters during a 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers. Nine elite swimmers (19.1 ± 1.9 years) completed three tests of 100 m without paddles, with small paddles (271.27 cm2) and with large paddles (332.67 cm2), respectively. One video camera was used to record the performance during the three trials. The mean swimming velocity, stroke rate and stroke length were measured in the central 10 meters of each 50 m length. The results showed that stroke length tended to increase significantly when wearing hand paddles (p < 0.05) during both the first and second 50 m sections whereas the increase in swimming velocity occurred only in the second 50 m (p < 0.05). Conversely, the stroke rate showed a slight decreasing trend with increasing paddle size. During the 100 m freestyle trial the stroke kinematics were changed significantly as a result of the increase in propelling surface size when hand paddles were worn.

Open access

Aleksandra Samełko, Monika Guszkowska and Anna Gala-Kwiatkowska

Abstract

Introduction. Sports activity involves experiencing affective states, which have a substantial effect on actions taken by the athlete. The results of previous studies on the relationship between emotional states and sport performance outcomes are ambiguous. The aim of the study was to establish the relationships between affective states (both emotional states and moods) and performance in swimming.

Material and methods. The study examined 9 female swimmers and 22 male swimmers competing at the national level aged from 15 to 23 years (M = 18.1; SD = 2.397). Affective states were evaluated by means of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) completed once a day before the competition and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) completed before each race. The subject’s life record was divided by the time obtained in each race and expressed as a percentage.

Results. Immediately before the races where the best results were obtained, the swimmers experienced the strongest positive emotions and the lowest level of negative emotions. The lowest level of positive states was recorded before the races with the worst performance. The lower the level of negative moods (fatigue, depression, anger, and tension) and the higher the level of positive moods (vigour and kindness) were, the better the results obtained by swimmers were. One exception was confusion, which unexpectedly correlated positively with the swimmers’ results. Preliminary analyses showed no indication of statistically significant differences between the women and men surveyed.

Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that affective states influence performance outcomes in swimming. This influence may vary according to the valence and content as well as duration of affective states (emotional states vs. mood). On the basis of the results obtained, guidelines for coaches and their athletes can be formulated. A properly prepared trainer can choose training tasks in such a way as to optimise the intensity and content of the emotions experienced by athletes. Emotions seem to be important not only with regard to athletes’ well-being, but also as indirect and direct predictors of the results they achieve. Expression of emotion and emotional awareness in persons connected with sport should be included in training work.

Open access

José María González Ravé, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Fernando González-Mohíno, Inmaculada Yustres, Rubén Barragán, Francisco de Asís Fernández, Daniel Juárez and Juan Jaime Arroyo-Toledo

Abstract

This study used a power rack device to evaluate the effects of 2 different approaches to resisted swim training loads on swimming strength and performance. Sixteen male, youth national-level swimmers (mean age, 16.22 ± 2.63 years; body height, 169 ± 10.20 cm; body mass, 61.33 ± 9.90 kg) completed a 6-week specific strength-training program, and were then randomly assigned to one of the two groups: a standard training group (GS, n = 8) and a flat pyramid-loading pattern group (GP, n = 8). Strength and power tests along with specific swimming tests (50-m crawl and 50-m competition-style time trials) were conducted at baseline (pre-test), before the third week (mid-test), and after 6 weeks of intervention (post-test). Isokinetic swim bench tests were conducted to obtain measurements of force production and power, and 1RM tests with the power rack system were conducted to measure the maximum drag load (MDL) and specific swimming power. Following 6 weeks of intervention, the mean MDL increased (p < 0.05) by 13.94%. Scores for the 50-m competition style and 50-m crawl time trials improved by 0.32% and 0.78%, respectively, in the GP; however, those changes were not statistically significant. The GS significantly increased their time in the 50-m competition style by 2.59%, and their isokinetic force production decreased by 14.47% (p < 0.05). The 6-week strength-training program performed with the power rack device in a pyramidal organization was more effective than a standard linear load organization in terms of producing improvements in the MDL; however, it did not produce significant improvements in performance. The use of a strength-training program with a pyramidal organization can be recommended for specific strength-training in young swimmers during a preparatory period. However, in our study, that program did not produce significant changes in 50-m crawl and main competition style performance.

Open access

Dorota Burzycka-Wilk

Effectiveness of Visual Information in the Process of Teaching Swimming Motor Activities

Purpose. In the process of learning motor functions, it is important to avoid perpetuating the wrong movements. For this purpose, it is recommended to use a combination of various media: speech, demonstration and practical activity. However, in some cases the learning process can be disrupted by difficult conditions (e.g. buzz at a swimming pool), which cause significant disturbance in perception of verbal information. In this situation, the teacher may use visual communication (in the form of gestures). The aim of this study was to determine differences in the accuracy of learning swimming skills (in the experimental and control groups) after implementing visual information (in the form of gestures) in the experimental group. Basic procedures. The test method used was a pedagogical experiment conducted among 86 people (40 in the experimental group and 46 in the control group). The difference between the groups consisted in different ways of correcting errors in movements: in the experimental group, I introduced an independent variable - visual information communicated by gestures, while in the control group errors were eliminated by means of verbal information. Main findings. Analysis of the results shows that the difference in the coefficients of swimming accuracy in the experimental and control groups is statistically significant and in favour of the experimental group. The result was significantly influenced by the precision of hip joint movements - bending and straightening - reached in the experimental group. Slightly less, but also important were differences in the precision of single movements like arm flexion, dorsal flexion in the talocrural joint and extension of the knee. Conclusions. 1. Visual information transmitted using "language of gestures" affects the accuracy of learning swimming motor activities. 2. In teaching of swimming motor activities, visual information is more effective than the information communicated verbally.

Open access

Elżbieta Biernat

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Participation in Swimming Amongst Working Residents of Warsaw

The aim of research is to assess the correlation between socio-demographic factors and swimming activity among the working population of Warsaw. The questionnaire survey included 4405 randomly selected residents of Warsaw. The correlation between the swimming activity and the variables characterizing the socio-demographic structure of the respondents were assessed by log-linear modelling. The significance of the impact of factors included in the analysis was determined using the chi-square test. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents declared recreational swimming. Gender, age, BMI, education, occupation, and income were significantly related to the swimming activity. Women (33%) - compared to men (38%) - were almost 1.2 times less likely to participate in swimming; similarly, overweight people (33%, OR = 0.90) and obese people (33%, OR = 0.92). People from Warsaw from 20-29 years (43%), with higher education (40%), incomes above the national average (40%), and representing the profession of an actor (52%), swam relatively more often. The results of the study might help in developing marketing plans and market segmentation strategies, as well as in forecasting the development trends of the leisure activity.

Open access

Virgil Ene-Voiculescu and Carmen Ene-Voiculescu

Abstract

Experimental realized study express a good result for sample experiment. Regarding all five statistical parameters are significant to final testing which validates the training program applied.

Open access

Nikoletta Nagy, Csaba Ökrös and Csaba Sós

Abstract

In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400). The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

Open access

Rafał Dudzik

Abstract

The present elaboration describes realization of project task, entitled: „Retrieving old function in historic swimming pool, at 52 Zgorzelecka street in Bolesławiec“, it has an influence with taking into consideration the most important problem on ultimate form of rebuilding, on base of present project done by the author of article, as being producer and planner at the same time. It emphasizes architectonic questions in text, concerning forming area, however, it omits solutions of numerous engineering problems (e. g. isolation and draining, etc.). Work project started at the end of 2010 and finished in February of year 2012. Object is in the course of final construction works.

Open access

Krystyna Zatoń and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of immediate verbal feedback on swimming effectiveness. Swimming effectiveness was expressed in the subjects reaching their objective, i.e., maximum swimming velocity. The study involved 64 subjects divided into two groups (experimental group n=32; control group n=32). Two measurements - initial (pre-test) and final (post-test) - were conducted. The subjects swam a distance of 25 m front crawl at maximum velocity. The experimental groups received immediate verbal feedback focused on stroke lengthening, as a shorter stroke length is regarded as the most common reason behind lower swimming velocity. From this perspective, lengthening the stroke is important due to its relation with mechanics and energetics in all styles of swimming. The control group received no verbal feedback. All tests were recorded via video cameras (50 samples·s-1). The analysis of the kinematic movement parameters (horizontal average swimming velocity over 15m, time achieved over 15m) was carried out by means of the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements with a Tukey’s test demonstrated statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the tested groups in the case of the kinematic parameters measured in the study. Immediate verbal feedback (IVF) caused an increase of the average horizontal swimming velocity by 2.92% (0.04 m·s-1). Consequently, the average time needed by the swimmers to cover the distance (15m) decreased by 2.94% (0.36s). The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of teaching and improving the swimming technique using IVF.