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Amanda Casey, Colin Boyd, Sasho MacKenzie and Roy Rasmussen

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry to Measure the Effects of a Thirteen-Week Moderate to Vigorous Aquatic Exercise and Nutritional Education Intervention on Percent Body Fat in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities from Group Home Settings

People with intellectual disability are more likely to be obese and extremely obese than people without intellectual disability with rates remaining elevated among adults, women and individuals living in community settings. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured the effects of a 13-week aquatic exercise and nutrition intervention on percent body fat in eight adults with intellectual disabilities (aged 41.0 ± 13.7 yrs) of varying fat levels (15%-39%) from two group homes. A moderate to vigorous aquatic exercise program lasted for the duration of 13 weeks with three, one-hour sessions held at a 25m pool each week. Nutritional assistants educated participants as to the importance of food choice and portion size. A two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test determined the impact of the combined intervention on body fat percentage and BMI at pre and post test. Median body fat percentage (0.8 %) and BMI (0.3 kg/m2) decreased following the exercise intervention, but neither were statistically significant, p = .11 and p = .55, respectively. The combined intervention was ineffective at reducing percent body fat in adults with intellectual disability according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These results are in agreement with findings from exercise alone interventions and suggest that more stringent nutritional guidelines are needed for this population and especially for individuals living in group home settings. The study did show that adults with intellectual disability may participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity when given the opportunity.

Open access

Rafał Dudzik

Abstract

The present elaboration describes realization of project task, entitled: „Retrieving old function in historic swimming pool, at 52 Zgorzelecka street in Bolesławiec“, it has an influence with taking into consideration the most important problem on ultimate form of rebuilding, on base of present project done by the author of article, as being producer and planner at the same time. It emphasizes architectonic questions in text, concerning forming area, however, it omits solutions of numerous engineering problems (e. g. isolation and draining, etc.). Work project started at the end of 2010 and finished in February of year 2012. Object is in the course of final construction works.

Open access

Vassilios Thanopoulos, Georgia Rozi, Tomislav Okičić, Milivoj Dopsaj, Bojan Jorgić, Dejan Madić, Saša Veličković, Zoran Milanović, Fani Spanou and Emilios Batis

Differences in the Efficiency Between the Grab and Track Starts for Both Genders in Greek Young Swimmers

The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the kinematic parameters between the grab and track starts and the differences in these two starts between genders. A total of 27 swimmers at the competitive level participated in the study, 13 boys (mean ± SD: age 15.8 ± 0.8 years, body mass 67.7 ± 7.7 kg and body height 178.6 ± 5.7 cm) and 14 girls (mean ± SD: age 16 ± 0.8 years, body mass 59.2 ± 6.6 kg and body height 166.2 ± 6.7 cm). Each swimmer performed three attempts for both start techniques. The best attempt of the grab start and the track start was taken for further analysis. The following kinematic parameters were analysed: flight distance, flight time, flight velocity, entry angle and reaction time. The males had greater numeric values for the results in all kinematic parameters for the grab start compared with the track start, except for flight velocity and entry angle (flight time 0.42 vs. 0.41 s, flight distance 3.21 vs. 3.14 m, flight velocity 7.76 vs. 7.83 m/s, entry angle 44.22 vs. 43.85 degrees and reaction time 0.86 vs. 0.81 s). The females also had greater numeric values for the results in all kinematic parameters for the grab start compared with the track start, except for flight time (flight time 0.38 vs. 0.38 s, flight distance 2.82 vs. 2.73 m, flight velocity 7.47 vs. 7.31 m/s, entry angle 45.18 vs. 44.79 degrees and reaction time 0.88 vs. 0.82 s). These results indicate that the males had significantly better results for flight time and flight distance compared with the females for the grab start (flight time 0.42 vs. 0.38 s, flight distance 3.21 vs. 2.82 m). In the case of the track start, the males had significantly better results for flight distance (3.14 vs. 2.73 m). Exploring the characteristics of the two starts did not lead to any significant kinematic differences. Therefore, a conclusion that demonstrates the superiority of one of the techniques cannot be reached. The coach, together with each swimmer individually, should devote some time to decide after some tests what type of start is better for the body type and general qualifications of the swimmer.

Open access

Dorota Burzycka-Wilk

Effectiveness of Visual Information in the Process of Teaching Swimming Motor Activities

Purpose. In the process of learning motor functions, it is important to avoid perpetuating the wrong movements. For this purpose, it is recommended to use a combination of various media: speech, demonstration and practical activity. However, in some cases the learning process can be disrupted by difficult conditions (e.g. buzz at a swimming pool), which cause significant disturbance in perception of verbal information. In this situation, the teacher may use visual communication (in the form of gestures). The aim of this study was to determine differences in the accuracy of learning swimming skills (in the experimental and control groups) after implementing visual information (in the form of gestures) in the experimental group. Basic procedures. The test method used was a pedagogical experiment conducted among 86 people (40 in the experimental group and 46 in the control group). The difference between the groups consisted in different ways of correcting errors in movements: in the experimental group, I introduced an independent variable - visual information communicated by gestures, while in the control group errors were eliminated by means of verbal information. Main findings. Analysis of the results shows that the difference in the coefficients of swimming accuracy in the experimental and control groups is statistically significant and in favour of the experimental group. The result was significantly influenced by the precision of hip joint movements - bending and straightening - reached in the experimental group. Slightly less, but also important were differences in the precision of single movements like arm flexion, dorsal flexion in the talocrural joint and extension of the knee. Conclusions. 1. Visual information transmitted using "language of gestures" affects the accuracy of learning swimming motor activities. 2. In teaching of swimming motor activities, visual information is more effective than the information communicated verbally.

Open access

Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann and Christoph A. Rüst

Abstract

Performance trends in elite butterfly swimmers are well known, but less information is available regarding master butterfly swimmers. We investigated trends in participation, performance and sex differences in 9,606 female and 13,250 male butterfly race times classified into five-year master groups, from 25-29 to 90-94 years, competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analyzed using linear regression analysis. Trends in performance changes were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and a calendar year as fixed variables. We also considered interaction effects between sex and distance. Participation increased in master swimmers older than ~30-40 years. The men-to-women ratio remained unchanged across calendar years and master groups, but was lower in 200 m compared to 50 m and 100 m. Men were faster than women from 25-29 to 85-89 years (p < 0.05), although not for 90-94 years. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction in all master groups from 25-29 to 90-94 years for 200m (p < 0.05). For 50 m and 100 m, a significant sex × distance interaction was observed from 25-29 to 75-79 years (p < 0.05), but not in the older groups. In 50 m, women reduced the sex difference in master groups 30-34 to 60-64 years (p < 0.05). In 100 m, women decreased the gap to men in master groups 35-39 to 55-59 years (p < 0.05). In 200 m, the sex difference was reduced in master groups 30-34 to 40-44 years (p < 0.05). In summary, women and men improved performance at all distances, women were not slower compared to men in the master group 90-94 years; moreover, women reduced the gap to men between ~30 and ~60 years, although not in younger or older master groups.

Open access

Nikoletta Nagy, Csaba Ökrös and Csaba Sós

Abstract

In 2017, the 19th World Swimming Championship will be organized in Hungary. Up to now, many people have already been working with swimmers to achieve good results. However, in the next period they must work even harder to ensure that the national swimmers of a country as small as Hungary can achieve the outstanding results of their predecessors. Since high-level competitions in swimming have become more intense, innovations including scientific studies are needed during preparation for the event. The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of an independent study carried out by the authors about the relative age of the best Hungarian swimmers with the aim of contributing to their preparation. The research population consisted of selected age groups of swimmers registered by the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=400). The method for data collection was an analysis of documents. To evaluate the data, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results are presented according to the period of the competitor’s date of birth, gender, and age group. The results confirm only partly the hypothesis that people born in the first quarters of the year play a dominant role in Hungarian national swimming teams. In the conclusion, the authors recommend further research on relative age in swimming and in other sports.

Open access

Krystyna Zatoń and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of immediate verbal feedback on swimming effectiveness. Swimming effectiveness was expressed in the subjects reaching their objective, i.e., maximum swimming velocity. The study involved 64 subjects divided into two groups (experimental group n=32; control group n=32). Two measurements - initial (pre-test) and final (post-test) - were conducted. The subjects swam a distance of 25 m front crawl at maximum velocity. The experimental groups received immediate verbal feedback focused on stroke lengthening, as a shorter stroke length is regarded as the most common reason behind lower swimming velocity. From this perspective, lengthening the stroke is important due to its relation with mechanics and energetics in all styles of swimming. The control group received no verbal feedback. All tests were recorded via video cameras (50 samples·s-1). The analysis of the kinematic movement parameters (horizontal average swimming velocity over 15m, time achieved over 15m) was carried out by means of the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements with a Tukey’s test demonstrated statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the tested groups in the case of the kinematic parameters measured in the study. Immediate verbal feedback (IVF) caused an increase of the average horizontal swimming velocity by 2.92% (0.04 m·s-1). Consequently, the average time needed by the swimmers to cover the distance (15m) decreased by 2.94% (0.36s). The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of teaching and improving the swimming technique using IVF.

Open access

Agata Grenda, Agata Leońska-Duniec, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Krzysztof Ficek, Paweł Król, Paweł Cięszczyk and Piotr Żmijewski

Abstract

We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races

Open access

Yuji Matsuda, Yosuke Yamada, Yasushi Ikuta, Teruo Nomura and Shingo Oda

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine whether the intracyclic velocity variation (IVV) was lower in elite swimmers than in beginner swimmers at various velocities, and whether differences may be related to arm coordination. Seven elite and nine beginner male swimmers swam front crawl at four different swimming velocities (maximal velocity, 75%, 85%, and 95% of maximal swimming velocity). The index of arm coordination (IDC) was calculated as the lag time between the propulsive phases of each arm. IVV was determined from the coefficient of variation of horizontal velocity within one stroke cycle. IVV for elite swimmers was significantly lower (26%) than that for beginner swimmers at all swimming velocities . In contrast, the IDC was similar between elite and beginner swimmers. These data suggest that IVV is a strong predictor of the skill level for front crawl, and that elite swimmers have techniques to decrease IVV. However, the IDC does not contribute to IVV differences between elite and beginner swimmers.

Open access

Aleksandra Samełko, Monika Guszkowska and Anna Gala-Kwiatkowska

Abstract

Introduction. Sports activity involves experiencing affective states, which have a substantial effect on actions taken by the athlete. The results of previous studies on the relationship between emotional states and sport performance outcomes are ambiguous. The aim of the study was to establish the relationships between affective states (both emotional states and moods) and performance in swimming.

Material and methods. The study examined 9 female swimmers and 22 male swimmers competing at the national level aged from 15 to 23 years (M = 18.1; SD = 2.397). Affective states were evaluated by means of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) completed once a day before the competition and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) completed before each race. The subject’s life record was divided by the time obtained in each race and expressed as a percentage.

Results. Immediately before the races where the best results were obtained, the swimmers experienced the strongest positive emotions and the lowest level of negative emotions. The lowest level of positive states was recorded before the races with the worst performance. The lower the level of negative moods (fatigue, depression, anger, and tension) and the higher the level of positive moods (vigour and kindness) were, the better the results obtained by swimmers were. One exception was confusion, which unexpectedly correlated positively with the swimmers’ results. Preliminary analyses showed no indication of statistically significant differences between the women and men surveyed.

Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that affective states influence performance outcomes in swimming. This influence may vary according to the valence and content as well as duration of affective states (emotional states vs. mood). On the basis of the results obtained, guidelines for coaches and their athletes can be formulated. A properly prepared trainer can choose training tasks in such a way as to optimise the intensity and content of the emotions experienced by athletes. Emotions seem to be important not only with regard to athletes’ well-being, but also as indirect and direct predictors of the results they achieve. Expression of emotion and emotional awareness in persons connected with sport should be included in training work.