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Towards a Reflexive Ethnography: (Re-)inserting the Producer and Process Into the Research Equation

Abstract:

The individualistic orientation of life histories has long been hailed as an antidote to the generalizing tendencies of ethnographic research. However, the life history method is not without problems of its own, as I explain by referencing some of the most well celebrated life histories and so-called ‘autobiographies’ in the anthropological corpus. The traditional method of composing the life history as a flowing narrative is not only morally dishonest but also intellectually inadequate because it conveys the false impression of a chronologically timeless and uninterrupted soliloquy. By focusing only on the final product, life histories ignore the other two components in the communicative process. In this article, I emphasize the need to (re-)insert the producer and process into the research equation.

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Slovenian experience from diagnostic angiography to interventional radiology

Abstract

Background. The purpose of writing this article is to document the important events and people in the first 50 years of diagnostic angiography and interventional radiology in Slovenia. During this period not only did the name of the institutions and departments change, but also its governance.

Conclusions. This depicted the important roles different people played at various times in the cardiovascular divisions inside and outside of the diagnostic and interventional radiology. Historical data show that Slovenian radiology has relatively immediately introduced the new methods of interventional radiology in clinical practice

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Changes of historical metadata reflected in the wind parameters at Iași meteorological station

Abstract

The metadata are defined as the informations behind the data. The purpose of the metadata in meteorological activity is to represent where, when, how and by whom meteorological data has been obtained, colected and recorded. Ideally, a comprehensive metadata base should contain records of all changes that have occured throughout the entire period in which the meteorological station has functioned, the so called „station history”. This paper renders the preliminary results of the analysed wind parameter values (percentages of wind calm and wind frequency) for the time period between 1961 and 2015 at Iași meteorological station. The data were analysed based on various historical metadata information (e.g. the emergence of new construction(s) around the station, relocation of the station, changes in the equipment used to measure the wind etc.), information that may influence the wind parameters measured at Iași weather station.

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Jewish philosophy and political theory to the shoah, some aspects

Abstract

For many researchers, the new categorical imperative by philosopher Theodor Adorno about thinking and acting in the way so that Auschwitz is never repeated, has become the new starting point for rethinking the rules of practicing the humanities. In the article, I present the postwar history of Jewish thought that has been manifested in the discourse about the Shoah.

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American Misions in Albania during World War II

Abstract

As is known historically, part of the World Anti-Fascist Grand Coalition was also another great ally, United States. Even the allies had issued the Declaration of December 1942, for recognition of the anti-fascist resistance of the Albanian people, as well as Great Britain and the Soviet Union, making it part of the International Coalition and part of his war against the common enemies nazi and fascists. Nevertheless, beyond the lack of these interests, the Americans under the World Anti-Fascist Grand Coalition few months after the british began in the tiny Balkan military missions, although few toward British ally.

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The Image of Transylvania in the Works of Two Contemporary Romanian Historians. Translation and Related Views on History

Abstract

“As every inhabited area, culturally Transylvania can also be conceived of mainly as a symbolic space. Starting from its physical, material reality, our perceptions are made up into a subjective image of the area in question. This is the real Transylvania, or rather, the place in connection with which we formulate our ideas and to which we adjust our deeds. This image may seem so real also because it is equally shared by many, occasionally several millions. If many see things in the same way, we could say, this means that they are so in reality, though most of the time we only share prejudices, clichés and misunderstandings” - Sorin Mitu writes. Comparative imagology examines the formation of these collective ideas as well as the issues of identity and attitude to the Other. As a member of the imagology research group at the Department of Humanities of Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Miercurea Ciuc, Romania, I translated one chapter of Sorin Mitu’s volume entitled Transilvania mea [My Transylvania]. During the translation process it became obvious to me that if translation is not only linguistic but also cultural transmission, it is especially true for the translation of historical works and that it would be worth examining whether some kind of rapprochement could be detected between the Romanian and Hungarian historical research of the past decades; if yes, whether this is reflected in the mutual translation of the respective works

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The alchemy of human variation: Race, ethnicity and Manoiloff's blood reaction

The alchemy of human variation: Race, ethnicity and Manoiloff's blood reaction

This paper examines the research on race determination conducted by Russian biochemist E.O. Manoiloff in the 1920s. Manoiloff claimed to have discovered a method which detected racial identity of an individual by a simple chemical reaction performed on a subject's blood sample. The method was published in one of the leading anthropological journals and it was not questioned for some time. It is obvious today that Manoiloff's claims were nothing short of ridiculous. The present study, based on the experimental history of sciences, tries to elucidate Manoiloff's procedures and reasons for his ‘success’. His experiments were repeated using both original and modern equipment. It has been demonstrated that Manoiloff's procedures, although rigorous at first glance, were highly arbitrary and methodologically flawed. It would appear that the socio-political and scientific contexts of the early twentieth century which favoured belief in the existence of clearly distinguishable racial types played a crucial role in the initial positive response to Manoiloff's research.

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Education: 4. Perspectives on the Concepts of Gifting and Talent and How they are Used in the Arts

Abstract

The educational programs dedicated to gifted and talented people are developed or must be developed starting with an adhesion to a definition of the working concept, in this case „giftedness” or „talent”. A foray into the literature proves that the meaning of the concept of giftedness has developed over time, as influenced by various factors such as historical (history of the research) and of human nature (psychological or educational). The aim of the paper is to make a review of the associated key moments in the evolution of the concept of giftedness. The bibliographical sources allowed us to achieve a chronological overview of the position/attitude of the most prestigious researchers in the field, who tried to explain the concept of giftedness and talent. The collected data demonstrates that there is no unanimous acceptance of a single definition until today, and that the concept keeps its tendency to perpetual transformation. The constant during this time remains its relationship with the demonstrated, respectively with the potential performance.

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Romania in The Last Hundred Years Historical and Musical Considerations What was done? What are we doing? What to do?

Abstract

In 2018, Romanians celebrate the Centenary – a hundred years since Romania had the largest territory ever inhabited primarily by Romanians, at the same time, a century since Romania as a modern country was born. What do we know about our history in the last one hundred years? What and why do we celebrate? We know too little; many of the Romanians participating in the celebration do not know what it is for. The torrent of pathetic and solemn words about the past is useless. I followed two paths side by side, which happen to be in a natural connection, but sometimes they also go through distinct stages: on one hand, the course of the main historical events from the beginning of World War I until now, and on the other hand, Romanian musical life during the same period. I will cover five historical stages (World War I, Interwar Period and World War II, Soviet Occupation, Ceauşescuʼs era and Post-Communist Period) pursuing four main aims: a) an explicit historical image (as a musician I had a relatively narrow perspective on general historical facts); b) completing superficial knowledge received in school (before 1989) with information to justify certain events; c) the relationship between history–culture–music, in support of the idea that art does not exclude knowledge and civic involvement, on the contrary; d) the Past justifies the Present and together they work upon the Future. In the epilogue I will reveal an example that I consider illustrative for this fourth aim: the project Saving Enescu’s Cottage from Mihăileni. I have made this study mainly for my own benefit, in order to understand the historical facts, but especially to find an answer to the question: knowing history – what’s the use?

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Empathy or Empathies? Uncertainties in the Interdisciplinary Discussion

Summary

The term empathy has become a linguistic commonplace in everyday communication as well as in interdisciplinary research. The results of the research questions, raised in the last hundred (and more) years, coming from different areas, such as aesthetics, psychology, neurosciences and literary theory, lack in fact a clear concept of empathy. Not surprisingly, a recent paper has identified up to 43 distinct definitions of empathy in academic publications. By reconstructing the main research lines on empathy, our paper highlights the reasons for this conceptual inadequacy and the deficiencies in the theorization of empathy that create misleading interpretations thereof. Along the line connecting Plato’s insights on empathic experiences to the present neuroscientific experiments, a broad spectrum of issues is deployed for which “empathy” functions as an umbrella term covering a net of categorical relationships – projection, transfer, association, expression, animation, anthropomorphization, vivification, fusion, and sympathy – that only partially overlap. Our paper therefore recommends that “empathy” should not be assumed as a self-evident notion but instead preliminarily clarified in its definition every time we decide to have recourse to it.

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