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Open access

Łukasz Gołuński and Bolesław Augustyniak

Modeling by finite element methods of impact of erosion on frequency of normal modes of l-0 blade

After some time of exploitation steam turbine rotors blades in energetic industry they are being eroded and also their frequency of normal modes is changed. Those changes can cause to unwanted shift of blades normal mode frequencies. It is necessary to find quick method of rating changes of frequency in connection of mass loss due erosion. The evaluation of this dependence was made by finite element modeling method using HyperWorks 8.0 software. Geometrical model of blade L-0 with mass of 22 kg and length of 74 cm was used. There were calculated frequencies of the first five modes in function of mass loss along the leading blade edge (up to mass loss of 1,2%). Small losses of weight (around 0,2%) cause similar changes in values (around 0,2%) for all modes but with different types of frequency change (decrease or increase). The frequency decreases for all modes except mode the 3rd. For bigger mass loss an monotonic decrease of frequency was observed in 1st, 2nd, 5th mode and maximum (around +1,5 %) for 3rd mode and minimum (- 0,5%) for 4th mode. For maximum mass loss (1,2%) maximal decrease of frequency was observed in 2nd mode around -2%. Results of this modeling can be used to estimate changes of frequencies caused by erosion in exploited blades when their mass loss is known.

Open access

J. Tomczak, Z. Pater and J. Bartnicki

Abstract

This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental research on skew rolling process of balls with diameter ;30 mm in multiple helical tools. Numerical analysis of the process was conducted basing on finite element method (FEM), using the commercial software Simufact Forming in version 10.0. Simulations were made in the three-dimensional state of strain with consideration of complex thermal analysis, due to which progression of the products shape was determined. Distributions of strains and temperatures as well as the process force parameters were also determined. The results of numerical calculations were experimentally verified in laboratory conditions. The obtained results confirmed the possibility of semi-finished products of balls type manufacturing by means of rolling in multiple helical impressions.

Open access

J. Piwnik and K. Mogielnicki

Abstract

The main aim of the paper is an evaluation of the real impact of a container surface roughness on metal plastic flow in the forward microextrusion process. For the purposes of experiment a specially designed and constructed by authors toolkit was used. Analyzed material was an annealed aluminium wire with 1,7 mm in diameter, with a stress-strain curve defined. Toolkit contains two experimental models of containers and rectangular dies with the same dimensions, differing only in the containers roughness degree. In order to determine the degree of the containers top layers asperities a roughness profiles with using laser microscope were made for each. Punch pressures have been calculated while forward extruding. In the next step the deflection of parallel lines marked at the samples longitudinal sections were analyzed. The extruded samples were submitted to the microhardness testing. Numerical analyses of analogous microextrusion processes have been also conducted. Container surface roughness was modelled as a rigid triangular wave with a zero friction factor at the interface m =0. Punch pressures and shapes of extruded samples flow nets were determined. Conducted investigations revealed the possibility of receiving products with different mechanical properties obtained by the container roughness assorting.

Open access

A. Tofil, J. Tomczak and T. Bulzak

Abstract

The paper presents a selection of numerical and theoretical results of the cross wedge rolling process for producing stepped shafts made of aluminum alloy 6061. The numerical modeling was performed using the FEM-based Simufact Forming simulation software. In the simulations, we examined the kinematics of metal flow and determined the distribution patterns of effective strains, temperatures, axial stresses and the Cockroft-Latham damage criterion. Variations in the rolling forces were determined, too. The numerical results were verified experimentally using a universal rolling mill designed and constructed by the present authors. This machine can be used to perform such processes as cross wedge rolling, longitudinal rolling and round bar cropping. During the experiments, we examined process stability and finished product geometry and recorded the torques. The experimental results confirm that axisymmetric aluminum alloy shafts can be produced by cross wedge rolling with two rolls. Last but not least, the experiments served to evaluate the technological potential of the rolling mill used.

Open access

P. Lacki, J. Adamus, W. Więckowski and J. Winowiecka

Abstract

Despite substantial demand for drawn parts made of high-strength sheet metal (including titanium alloys) observed in the modern industry, particularly automotive and aviation, their application remains insignificant. This results from the fact that such sheet metal shows poor plasticity and its cold-forming is almost impossible. Low drawability makes it impossible to obtain even such simple shapes as spherical cups. The authors of this study developed circular sheet-metal blanks with cutouts on their perimeter. The blanks allow for cold forming of spherical cups from Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheet metal using conventional rigid tools. The cutouts proposed in the study affect plastic strain distribution, which in turn leads to an increase in forming depth by about 30%. The numerical analysis, performed using the PamStamp 2G System software based on finite element method, was verified experimentally.

Open access

A. Jasik and M. Mroczek

Abstract

The study covers some aspects of the issue of determination of mutual connections between the mechanical and material factors, as well the biological implant adaptation processes. The main objective of the operation was adopted to develop models of cementless hip prosthesis company Fitmore Zimmer, taking into account the heterogeneity of material properties of bone tissue. These models were loaded in particular stages of the human gate and then they were used for the analysis of stress changes. The identification of the relations between the mechanical properties of osseous tissue required the conducting of computer simulations by means of the Finite Element Method (FEM).

Open access

B. Machulec and W. Bialik

Based on the minimum Gibbs Free Enthalpy algorithm (FEM), model of the ferrosilicon smelting process has been presented. It is a system of two closed isothermal reactors: an upper one with a lower temperature T1, and a lower one with a higher temperature T2. Between the reactors and the environment as well as between the reactors inside the system, a periodical exchange of mass occurs at the moments when the equilibrium state is reached. The condensed products of chemical reactions move from the top to the bottom, and the gas phase components move in the opposite direction. It can be assumed that in the model, the Reactor 1 corresponds to the charge zone of submerged arc furnace where heat is released as a result of resistive heating, and the Reactor 2 corresponds to the zones of the furnace where heat is produced by electric arc. Using the model, a series of calculations was performed for the Fe-Si-O-C system and was determined the influence of temperatures T1, T2 on the process. The calculation results show a good agreement model with the real ferrosilicon process. It allows for the determination of the effects of temperature conditions in charge zones and arc zones of the ferrosilicon furnace on the carbothermic silica reduction process. This allows for an explanation of many characteristic states in the ferrosilicon smelting process.

Open access

J. Bartnicki and J. Tomczak

This paper presents the forming method of head toothing with the application of rolling extrusion technology. Tools numerical models were used in numerical calculations. The presented numerical results concern metals flow kinematics, distributions of stresses and strains. Determined in the process technological parameters of head toothing forming allow foreseeing real material flow in the experiment planned for conducting.

Open access

P. Chyła, Z. Pater, J. Tomczak and P. Chyła

Abstract

This paper presents the research results of the balls rolling process according to the conventional and modified methods of rolling. Theoretical analysis was carried out by using numerical methods based on the Finite Element Method. The Simufact package version 10.0 were used for calculation. Simulations of balls rolling were carried out under conditions of 3D state of strain, taking into account the effect of thermal conditions occurring during forming. The study of the achieved results showed that the best rolling process parameters were obtained for the modified method, in which the feed material is heated up to 1150 °C. In this case, the rolling parameters such as: rolling force and torque as well as tool wear reached the smallest values.

Open access

M. Kukuryk

Analysis of Deformation and Damage Evolution in Hot Elongation Forging

The paper describes the analysis of the three-dimensional stress and strain state for the process of elongation forging of the X37CrMoV51 die steel using the finite element method. The results of simulation studies of the metal flow pattern and thermal phenomena in the hot forging process carried out in three different forging tools are reported. The results of the studies have been complemented with the prediction of the occurrence of ductile fractures during forging. The numerical analysis was performed using the DEFORM-3D program. The comparison of the theoretical study and experimental test results indicates a possibility of applying the developed model to the examination of strains and prediction of material fracturing during the hot forging of die steel.