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Geschichte zwischen Erinnerung und Phantasie / History between Memory and Fantasy

Summary

This article refers on a recent discussion with the question of the relationship between individual memory and collective history. It is claimed a constitutive role of memory in history. This thesis is examined on the basis of the question according to the value of the autobiography as a historical source. It is shown here that a reference to the collective history is already guaranteed in the relationship between memory and narrative. Four observations shall justify the arguments, they concern (i) the role of intuition in historical narrative, (ii) the relationship between historical actor and his deeds, (iii) the transcendence of memory, and (iv) the role of fiction in the historical narrative. The last observation leads at the end on the role of fantasy in the historical memory.

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“Journeys are Meaningful” (Travelling, Travellers, Literary Periods, Literary Journeys)

Abstract

If the changes of the “discourse networks” (Aufschreibesysteme) from 1800 to 1900 model the relations pertaining to the personality, to the cultural determinedness of technology and personality as well as to their interconnections (Kittler 1995), especially having in view the literary mise en scène, it applies all the more to travelling - setting out on a journey, heading towards a destination, pilgrimage and/or wandering as well as the relationship between transport technology and personality. The changes taking place in “transport” are partly of technological, partly (in close connection with the former) indicative of individual and collective claims. The diplomatic, religious, commercial and educational journeys essentially belong to the continuous processes of European centuries; however, the appearance of the railway starts a new era at least to the same extent as the car and the airplane in the twentieth century. The journeys becoming systematic and perhaps most tightly connected to pilgrimages from the Middle Ages on assured the “transfer” of ideas, attitudes and cultural materials in the widest sense; the journeys and personal encounters (of course, taking place, in part, through correspondence) of the more cultured layers mainly, are to be highly appreciated from the viewpoint of the history of mentalities and society.

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Toponymy of the Ancient Sary-Arka (North-Eastern Kazakhstan)

Abstract

This study examines the etymology of the principal physiographic entities of the ancient Sary-Arka area–meaning in the old Turkic language Yellowing Ridge – encompassing the present territory of parkland-steppes, rocky highlands and the adjacent mountains of North and East Kazakhstan. The current linguistic evidence points to a complex and chronologically long culture-historical development reflected by the local place names best-recorded for the major rivers and mountains (hydronyms and oronyms, respectively). Not all geo-site names are securely determined by using modern onomastics. Records of material culture provide additional multi-proxy information. Local uniformity of some toponyms across the extensive area assuming a common cultural background attests to a broader ethnic homogeneity and/or mobility of the ancient populations inhabiting this vast and geomorphically mosaic land. This suggests a close relationship and interactions (including demographic exchanges and mixing) between the past pastoral ethics in the parkland-steppe and semi-desert areas north of Lake Balkhash between the Aral Sea and the southern Urals in the West and the Alatau–Altai Mountain systems in the East. Whereas the hydronyms of the Sary-Arka may have a rather complex and not fully clear origin with a connection to the Turkic-Tatar medieval tribes and nations’ occupancy in northern Central Asia eventually modified into the present Kazakh language forms, the oronyms of the East Kazakhstan mountain ranges indicate the Mongolian roots.

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Acoustic Divergence in Domestic Horses

Abstract

We tested whether pronounced morphological variability of horses caused by artificial selection was followed also by variation in their vocalization. We compared whinnies of 10 breeds representing horse varieties both in morphology and history using discrimination analyses (Wilks´ lambda = 0.070). Whinnies of Shetland pony were the most distinct from calls of other breeds (74.1% classification success). This result is in agreement with distinction based on morphological features. Whinnies of the primitive Hucul horse belonged among the most correctly classified ones (73.5%). Classification results of both Old Kladruby horse colour forms were very different: whinnies of the grey form revealed the least successful classification (18.9%) whilst calls of the black form showed one of the best classification outputs (72.4%). A surprising result was the extreme vocal distinction between the heaviest breeds, confirmed by discrimination analysis, the Czech-Moravian Belgian (55.5%), and Silesian Noriker (51.4%). This finding was contrary to their morphological similarity.

The relationship between morphological and acoustical variables revealed a significant correlation (r ˂ -0.57). Our results did not confirm the hypothesis of acoustic distinction in horse breeds based simply on their morphology. However, whinnies of an old breed, the Shetland pony, were the most distinct ones from all the others. The other old breeds, the Thoroughbred and the Old Kladruby horses, clustered together with the modern Czech warmblood. Our results seem to not confirm the second hypothesis of vocal distinction based on the length of time since establishment of the respective breed. Significant differences among horse breeds indicate the process of vocal distinction during the process of artificial selection.

Open access
A digital Jewish history?

Abstract

How can we teach Jewish history in a modern and effective way? In Hamburg, Germany, a school project called Geschichtomat tries to find an answer to that question. With the help of digital media, students explore their Jewish neighbourhood. This one-of-a-kind German program permits students to experience the Jewish past and present life in their hometown. During the project, students explore their neighbourhood to understand its historical figures, places, and events. This way they engage with Jewish life. Under the supervision of experts in the disciplines of history and media education, the students will: research, perform interviews with cultural authorities and contemporary witnesses, visit museums and archives, shoot and cut films, edit photos and write accompanying texts. Finally, their contributions are uploaded to the geschichtomat.de website. Little by little a digital map of Jewish life from the perspective of teenagers will take shape.

Open access
11. Traditional and Innovative Methods in Approaching Music Styles. Pedagogical Implications

Abstract

The approach to music styles entails an in-depth musicological analysis aimed at synthesizing numerous bibliographical sources belonging to different fields and directions of research. A chronological overview of studies (Jean Molino, Fait musical et sémiologie de la musique, 1975; Jean Jaques Nattiez, Quelques reflexions du style, 1993; R. J. Pascall, Style, in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1994; Jean Jaques Nattiez, La musique de l’avenir, in Musique. Une Encyclopédie pour le XXI siècle, 2003; Mario Baroni, Stil şi mutaţii stilistice în tradiţia muzicală europeană, in Musique Une encyclopédie pour le XXI siècle, 2006) and of universal (Leonard Meyer, Explaining Music, 1973; Charles Rosen, Le style classique: Haydn. Mozart, Beethoven, 1978; Leonard B. Meyer, Style and Music. Theory, History and Ideology, 1989; and Romanian specialised literature (Cornel Ţăranu, Elemente de stilistică muzicală (sec. XX), 1981; Edgar Papu, Despre stiluri, 1986; Valentina Sandu-Dediu, Alegeri Atitudini Afecte, 2010; Vasile Iliuţ, O carte a stilurilor muzicale, 2011; Valentin Timaru, Stilistică muzicală, 2014) from the late 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, reveal the different and, more often than not, contrasting views of historians, analysts, aestheticians, philosophers, scholars and educators, starting from the meaning of the very idea of style, to the reception of this phenomenon in contemporaneity. On these grounds, this study proposes a systematization of the most relevant landmarks in documentation to date, for the purpose of applying them from a didactic perspective.

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Between America and Europe – Communicating in the Light of the Spatial Mobility of Poles. Part 1

Abstract

Emigration from Poland has a rich and complicated history. Also nowadays, international mobility is still a constant element present in the life of Polish society and in worldwide trends. Migrating beyond the borders of a given country has become a feature of contemporary citizens of the world. The new global mobility trends are: globalization, acceleration, diversity and transnationality, feminization (Castles, Miller, 2011). In reference to the issue of the volume, major emphasis was placed on the first of these trends, i.e. globalization. The purpose of this paper is to show how migrants have communicated with members of their families during cumulative dislocations from the late 19th century to modern times. Particular attention was paid to the ways of maintaining contact with family and the country of origin.

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Drosophila melanogaster research: history, breakthrough and perspectives

Abstract

The common fruit fly, or Drosophila Melanogaster, has been used as an object of biomedicals studies for over a century. It has been mostly employed in genetic research, as it exhibits several advantages which make its use relatively easy and cheap, with the results widely translatable into further vertebrate studies. This model been the basis of the work of Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, who together with Eric Wieschaus unravelled much of the mystery surrounding early drosophila development in the 1970s-1980s, laying foundations for broader understanding of multicellular organism embryogenesis, which brought them a Nobel prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1995. The knowledge gained from drosophila studies improves the basic understanding of developmental processes, while the model itself is relatively easy to maintain, analyse and translate the results onto other species. While models such as Zebrafish present better with other vertebrates, drosophila remains a very important element of genetic research, finding even more applications with the development of current science and medicine. Hence, in this short review, the outline of the history, breakthroughs and perspectives of the drosophila research has been presented.

Open access
Towards a Reflexive Ethnography: (Re-)inserting the Producer and Process Into the Research Equation

Abstract:

The individualistic orientation of life histories has long been hailed as an antidote to the generalizing tendencies of ethnographic research. However, the life history method is not without problems of its own, as I explain by referencing some of the most well celebrated life histories and so-called ‘autobiographies’ in the anthropological corpus. The traditional method of composing the life history as a flowing narrative is not only morally dishonest but also intellectually inadequate because it conveys the false impression of a chronologically timeless and uninterrupted soliloquy. By focusing only on the final product, life histories ignore the other two components in the communicative process. In this article, I emphasize the need to (re-)insert the producer and process into the research equation.

Open access
Slovenian experience from diagnostic angiography to interventional radiology

Abstract

Background. The purpose of writing this article is to document the important events and people in the first 50 years of diagnostic angiography and interventional radiology in Slovenia. During this period not only did the name of the institutions and departments change, but also its governance.

Conclusions. This depicted the important roles different people played at various times in the cardiovascular divisions inside and outside of the diagnostic and interventional radiology. Historical data show that Slovenian radiology has relatively immediately introduced the new methods of interventional radiology in clinical practice

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