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Open access

Jarosław Pasek, Alicja Wołyńska-Ślężyńska, Jan Ślężyński, Tomasz Pasek, Anna Witiuk-Misztalska and Aleksander Sieroń

Znaczenie pływania korekcyjnego i ćwiczeń w wodzie w fizjoterapii

Zastosowanie pływania jako jednego ze środków nowoczesnego leczenia zyskuje coraz większą popularność. Pływanie korekcyjno-lecznicze oraz ćwiczenia w wodzie są jedną z niewielu form ruchowych w sporcie i fizjoterapii, które umozliwiają harmonijne rozwijanie całego ciała z minimalnym ryzykiem urazowości. Korzyści płynące z tej formy aktywności ruchowej powinny zachęcić do nauki pływania i wykonywania świczeń w wodzie bez względu na stopień niepełnosprawności ruchowej. Niniejsze opracowanie ma za zadanie przybliżyć czytelnikom podstawy metodologiczne i korzyści lecznicze tej formy aktywności ruchowej. Omówiono równiez wybrane formy i metody leczniczych zajęć ruchowych w wodzie.

Open access

Joaquín Gil, Luis-Millán Moreno, Juan Mahiques and Víctor Muñoz

Analysis on the Time and Frequency Domains of the Acceleration in Front Crawl Stroke

The swimming involves accelerations and decelerations in the swimmer's body. Thus, the main objective of this study is to make a temporal and frequency analysis of the acceleration in front crawl swimming, regarding the gender and the performance. The sample was composed by 31 male swimmers (15 of high-level and 16 of low-level) and 20 female swimmers (11 of high-level and 9 of low-level). The acceleration was registered from the third complete cycle during eight seconds in a 25 meters maximum velocity test. A position transducer (200Hz) was used to collect the data, and it was synchronized to an aquatic camera (25Hz). The acceleration in the temporal (root mean square, minimum and maximum of the acceleration) and frequency (power peak, power peak frequency and spectral area) domains was calculated with Fourier analysis, as well as the velocity and the spectrums distribution in function to present one or more main peaks (type 1 and type 2). A one-way ANOVA was used to establish differences between gender and performance. Results show differences between genders in all the temporal domain variables (p<0.05) and only the Spectral Area (SA) in the frequency domain (p<0.05). Between gender and performance, only the Root Mean Square (RMS) showed differences in the performance of the male swimmers (p<0.05) and in the higher level swimmers, the Maximum (Max) and the Power Peak (PP) of the acceleration showed differences between both genders (p<0.05). These results confirms the importance of knowing the RMS to determine the efficiency of the swimmers regarding gender and performance level

Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Streszczenie

Wstęp: Pływanie jest jedną z najpopularniejszych dyscyplin sportu uprawianych przez osoby niepełnosprawne, o czym może świadczyć wzrastająca liczba uczestnikow podczas kolejnych Igrzysk Paraolimpijskich (IP). Jednym ze sposobow oceny poziomu sportowego w danej dyscyplinie jest analiza wynikow z zawodow najwyższej rangi. Stąd celem pracy było porownanie wynikow sportowych, uzyskanych przez mężczyzn z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu w pływaniu w danej klasie startowej (1-10) na IP w latach 2000-2012.

Materiał i metody: Analizie poddano wyniki uzyskane przez mężczyzn z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu w pływaniu wszystkimi stylami, na wszystkich dystansach rozgrywanych podczas IP w latach 2000-2012. Do oceny istotności rożnic pomiędzy wynikami uzyskanymi przez zawodnikow wykorzystano test U Manna Whitney’a. Przyjęto poziom istotności p<0,05.

Wyniki: Zaobserwowano istotne statystycznie rożnice w poziomie (wzrost) uzyskiwanych wynikow we wszystkich klasach startowych w każdym ze stylow na rozgrywanych dystansach podczas kolejnych IP. Na przestrzeni 8 i 12 lat niemal wszystkie rożnice były istotne statystycznie. Taki kierunek zmian był najbardziej widoczny w przypadku zawodnikow z wyższych klas startowych (6-10).

Wnioski: Na podstawie analizy rezultatow pracy zaobserwowano wzrost poziomu wynikow uzyskiwanych przez mężczyzn z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu w pływaniu. Może to świadczyć o dużym zainteresowaniu tą formą ruchu wśrod osob niepełnosprawnych, szczegolnie z mniejszym deficytem funkcjonalnym. Powinno się zwrocić uwagę na zwiększenie udziału w rywalizacji zawodnikow niskich klas startowych (1-5).

Open access

Pedro Morouço, Henrique Neiva, Juan González-Badillo, Nuno Garrido, Daniel Marinho and Mário Marques

Associations Between Dry Land Strength and Power Measurements with Swimming Performance in Elite Athletes: a Pilot Study

The main aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between dry land strength and power measurements with swimming performance. Ten male national level swimmers (age: 14.9 ± 0.74 years, body mass: 60.0 ± 6.26 kg, height: 171.9 ± 6.26, 100 m long course front crawl performance: 59.9 ± 1.87 s) volunteered as subjects. Height and Work were estimated for CMJ. Mean power in the propulsive phase was assessed for squat, bench press (concentric phase) and lat pull down back. Mean force production was evaluated through 30 s maximal effort tethered swimming in front crawl using whole body, arms only and legs only. Swimming velocity was calculated from a maximal bout of 50 m front crawl. Height of CMJ did not correlate with any of the studied variables. There were positive and moderate-strong associations between the work during CMJ and mean propulsive power in squat with tethered forces during whole body and legs only swimming. Mean propulsive power of bench press and lat pull down presented positive and moderate-strong relationships with mean force production in whole body and arms only. Swimming performance is related with mean power of lat pull down back. So, lat pull down back is the most related dry land test with swimming performance; bench press with force production in water arms only; and work during CMJ with tethered forces legs only.

Open access

Yans Guardia-Puebla, Fernando Pérez-Quintero, Suyén Rodríguez-Pérez, Víctor Sánchez-Girón, Edilberto Llanes-Cedeño, Juan Rocha-Hoyos and Diana Peralta-Zurita

Abstract

The treatment of pool water, whether for recreational or sporting purposes, by phytoremediation is widely applied. This work evaluates two artificial vertical flow wetlands, one on a real scale and the other on a laboratory scale, which have been planted with Typha domingensis, for the treatment of pool water in the climatic conditions of the city of Santiago de Cuba. When the hydraulic load applied to the real scale wetland was less than 0.25 m3∙m–2∙d–1, the levels of organic and microbiological contamination in the pool were below the maximum limits allowed by Cuban standards. At a laboratory scale, the presence of vegetation favoured the elimination of nitrogen compounds (nitrates and ammonium) and organic materials (BOD and COD). This behaviour is explained by the presence of processes of assimilation of organic compounds, or by the action of microorganisms associated with the rhizome of plants, which establish a symbiotic mechanism favourable to phytodepuration. The minimum concentration of ammonium obtained in outflow from the laboratory-scale reactor without vegetation reached a value of 2.15 mg∙m–3, which is within the limits allowed by the sanitary regulations.

Open access

Jan Kopp, Jindřich Frajer and Marie Novotná

Abstract

This study is focused on the changing of areas of water bodies in selected villages of the Pilsen Region (Czechia). We researched several different types of rural settlements and three time horizons with the help of old maps, orthophoto maps and GIS tools. To capture the influence of their location within the urban system, we chose 15 places from four categories (inner suburban area, outside suburban area, rural area, periphery rural area) depending on their distance to the core of the Pilsen agglomeration. There is no significant change in the amount of water bodies between the first reference period (1838-1839) and the second period (1957-1963) in the selected settlements. However, the third period (2013-2015) is characterized by the emergence of a large number of small water bodies - swimming pools and garden ponds. Based on the results of our research we identified the declining importance of public water bodies in some of the settlements. However, we have identified a notable prevalence of garden ponds which have a more positive ecological impact than pools. The proportion of private water bodies (covered and uncovered pools and garden ponds) in the total area of water bodies in the rural settlements in most cases is less than 20%, in the suburban settlements up to 100%. Peripheral settlements have a below-average share of these water bodies. The difference between the number of pools in different settlements is related to the proportion of newly built houses there. Although there are relatively fewer pools in rural settlements, the difference compared to the situation in suburban settlements is not pronounced due to the change in lifestyle in rural areas and the change in functions of some villages to recreational areas. Influence of pools on water consumption is dependent on the individual exchange technology of water in swimming pools. Filling of the pool before the season can overload the capacity of the local water supply.