Phosphorus content and balance in granulometric fractions of old alluvial soil developed from alluvial deposits od Vistula River in middle Poland was studied. The distribution of phosphorus in particular granulometric fractions of the studied soil showed high quantitative variability vertically in the profile. This resulted from the layered structure of the Vistulian old alluvial formation developed throughout the Holocene. The contribution of grain fractions in phosphorus accumulation increased with a decrease in their diameter, and in certain fractions with a decrease in their quantitative state. Eluviation of phosphorus down the soil profile concerned in particular grain fraction <0.02 mm. Fractions with a larger diameters were not subject to the process. Phosphorus resources calculated from the grain fraction balance in the analysed soil amounted to an average of 1.7 kg·m2 to a depth of 200 cm.
This paper provides the verification of coefficients for the calculation of particle density, bulk density, and total porosity based on the texture of soils proposed by Brogowski (1990). The verified and supplemented coefficients for the calculation of particle density, bulk density, and total porosity permit obtaining credible results within the range of analytical errors. The proposed calculations of density and total porosity of soils can be used for the general description of soils. They cannot, however, replace exact scientific research on the physical state of soils.
The aim of this research was to finding methods of calculating the content of water unavailable to plants in the total soil mass based on the water properties of particular grain sizes. Fractions <0.02 mm bind from 90.1 to 98.8% of total water unavailable to plants in soils, and the clay fraction (<0.002 mm) alone binds from 52.1 to 80.1% of this water. Binding water in fractions <0.02 mm significantly depends on the mineralogical composition of fractions. The presence of illite, chlorite or kaolinite causes a decrease of capacity of water unavailable to plants by even 40% in relation to fractions composed of smectites, vermiculites, and humus. Due to high variability of the capacity of water unavailable to plants in particular grain size fractions <0.02 mm resulting from the variable mineralogical composition of this fraction, coefficients allowing to calculate the capacity of water unavailable to plants in soil microcapillaries below 0.2 μm show very high oscillation and could not be applicable.
The aim of the paper was to investigate the sorption properties of granulometric fractions separated from the genetic horizons of arable Haplic Cambisol developed from boulder loams of the Middle-Polish (Riss) Glaciation, Wartanian Stadial (central Poland). Separation of granulometric fractions was made with application of the Atterberg method without the use of centrifuging and dispersing agents. The cation exchange capacity average value in cmol(+)kg−1 and % contribution in particular fractions reached: 1–0.1 mm – 2.1 (1.6%), 0.1–0.05 mm – 5.5 (4.0%), 0.05–0.02 mm – 8.5 (6.1%), 0.02–0.01 mm – 13.0 (10.1%), 0.01–0.005 mm – 16.1 (12.8%), 0.005–0.002 mm – 28.6 (20.5%) and fraction <0.002 mm – 48.7 (44.9%). Leaching of the total exchangeable bases was the largest in the 0.1–0.05 mm fraction and decreased successively with decreasing grain diameter. Sorption properties of the tested soil determine its high agricultural value and buffer properties. The cation exchange capacity of the recognised granulometric fractions successively increased with decrease of their diameter while leaching process intensity in individual fractions decreased gradually as their dimensions decreased. Calcium was the most leached cation, followed by magnesium and sodium, whereas potassium was not leached at all. Significant increase of the cation exchange capacity in fractions from carbonate horizons was mostly caused by the increased contribution of calcium, which could be released from carbonates during extraction of bases.
The distribution of organic matter in the genetic horizons of lateritic soil within a 100-cm profile to the basaltic parent rock is almost except for horizon Ap. Assuming that the sum of organic matter in 100 cm of the soil profile is 100%, 25.7% of these compounds occur in horizon Ap, whereas in the remaining horizons this value varies within 18-19.2%. In all size fractions, except the clay fraction in diameter of <0.002 mm, the content of organic matter decreases to a certain depth, and increases again in the deepest horizon located directly on the solid basaltic rock. The clay fraction displays an opposite trend; the content of organic matter in them increases with depth. In the horizon at the depth of 60-80 cm, the clay fraction <0.002 mm accumulates half of the total sum of organic compounds of all the remaining fractions. Such distribution of organic matter in soil and among its particle size probably results from the character of the basaltic weathered debris, as well as climate and vegetation covering the studied area.
The objective of this paper was an attempt to estimate the impact of variable habitat conditions on the ionic state and ionic balance of selected species of plants occurring in an environment with scarce anthropogenic pressure in the Piska Primeval Forest, north-eastern Poland. The analysed mono- and dicotyledonous plants showed very high amounts of total nitrogen, exceeding sum of alkaline cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), particularly at poor natural habitats (Sphagno-girgensohni-Picetum and Pino-Quercetum communities). Lack of alkaline cations is probably compensated by nitrogen in the form of NH4+, therefore maintaining the ionic balance of cations and anions in plants. Plants inhabiting habitats such as the Tilio-Carpinetum community show very high amounts of potassium. Some potassium radioactivity is probably indispensable for the physiological processes in plants instead of solar radiation