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  • Author: Zvonimir Mlinarić x
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Kristina Pavić Zrinka Rajić, Zvonimir Mlinarić, Lidija Uzelac, Marijeta Kralj and Branka Zorc

Abstract

In the current paper, we describe the design, synthesis and antiproliferative screening of novel chloroquine derivatives with a quinoline core linked to a hydroxy or halogen amine through a flexible aminobutyl chain and urea spacer. Synthetic pathway leading to chloroquine urea derivatives 4-10 includes two crucial steps: i) synthesis of chloroquine benzotriazolide 3 and ii) formation of urea derivatives through the reaction of compound 3 with the corresponding amine. Testing of antiproliferative activity against four human cancer cell lines revealed that chloroquine urea derivatives 9 and 10 with aromatic moieties show activity at micromolar concentrations. Therefore, these molecules represent interesting lead compounds that might provide an insight into the design of new anticancer agents.

Open access

Hrvoje Lepeduš, Lidija Begović, Selma MlinarIć, Domagoj Šimić, Ivna Štolfa, Nada Parađiković, Zvonimir Užarević, Vlatka Jurković and Vera Cesar

Physiology and biochemistry of leaf bleaching in prematurely aging maple (Acer saccharinum L.) trees. II. Functional and molecular adjustment of PSII

In the present study we aimed to investigate physiological and molecular mechanisms of photosynthetic performance decline in prematurely aged bleached leaves of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) trees. We used in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement to analyze changes in PSII photochemistry, relative abundance of photosynthetic proteins (D1, LHCII, Cytf and Rubisco LSU), relations between chlorophylls and their precursor protochlorophyllide as well as elemental composition of the leaves. Decreases in Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Zn and an increase in S concentrations were found in bleached leaves in comparison to healthy green ones. The bleached leaves were visually expressing symptoms characteristic of Fe deficiency. Further, they had considerably decreased chlorophyll contents and protochlorophyllide contents, overall photosynthetic activity and relative abundance of major photosynthetic proteins. All the results indicate that modifications in the molecular organization of photosynthetic electron-transport chain components in bleached leaves led to functional adaptation of the PSII achieved by modifications of some reaction centres (RCs), turning them from active to dissipative. This provided efficient adaptation of bleached leaves to high-light induced oxidative damage during summer.