The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the implementation of new health traits into the breeding objective and selection criteria for Czech Holstein cows on the genetic selection response in the breeding objective traits. Incidence of overall claw diseases was included into the current breeding objective for cows (11 traits together). Three traits that indicated claw health (incidence of claw diseases overall and infectious and non-infectious claw diseases) and incidence of clinical mastitis were successively added to the current selection criteria in a cow selection index (a maximum of 19 traits). Selection responses in the breeding objective traits were estimated by applying the general principles of the selection index theory. The required genetic variances for the new traits, the economic weights for all breeding objective traits and the genetic correlations among the selection index traits were estimated within this study. The marginal economic weights, which were calculated for two-year-old cows by applying a bioeconomic model with implemented gene flow, were -193 and -168 € per case for clinical mastitis and overall claw disease incidence, respectively. Using the comprehensive selection index with 19 traits, the reduction in the incidence of both udder and claw diseases was calculated to be 0.004 cases per cow per year. At the same time, a more favourable genetic selection response was obtained for other functional traits, e.g., +0.020% for cow conception rate and +0.010 years for productive life of cow (which represented the profit of 67 € and 367 € per herd and per year, respectively) when compared to the current index. Based on this study, a direct selection of cows for claw and udder health is nowadays recommended to improve the health status of herds and economics in production systems.
The Egyptological collection of the Hrdlička Museum of Man, part of the Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, contains next to some ancient Egyptian artefacts mainly anthropological material, namely skeletal and mummified human remains. The article focuses on the skeletal material from the archeological site of Deir el-Medina. The paper discusses the genesis of the collection, its documentation and anthropological examinations in the 1930s and 1970s and most recently since 2012 to the present days. The paper also presents a complete catalogue of the skeletal material from Deir el-Medina in the Egyptological collection of the Hrdlička Museum of Man and provides a comprehensive bibliography on the topic.
Cases of mastitis (CM) from 38,236 lactations belonging to 16,497 cows were recorded on seven farms in the Czech Republic from 1996 to 2014. Clinical mastitis was analyzed with linear animal model as an all-or-none trait for each recorded lactation (CM305) and separately for each trimester of lactation (CM1, CM2, and CM3). Bivariate linear animal models were used to estimate the genetic correlation between these CM traits and lactation means for somatic cell score (SCS305), the interval between calving and first insemination (INT) and days open (DO). Factors included in the linear model were parity, herd, year of calving, calving season, fixed linear and quadratic regression on age at first calving, fixed linear and quadratic regression on milk production in the corresponding parity, permanent environmental effect of the cow, and additive genetic effect of the cow. Estimated heritabilities of the CM traits ranged from 0.01 to 0.03. Permanent environmental effects accounted for approximately two-thirds of the phenotypic variance. Genetic correlations of SCS305 with CM traits were 0.85±0.029, 0.81±0.086, 0.82±0.087, and 0.67±0.088 for CM305, CM1, CM2, and CM3, respectively. Genetic correlations of INT with CM305, CM1, CM2, and CM3, respectively, were 0.22±0.065, 0.19±0.084, 0.20±0.121 and 0.15±0.121: and genetic correlations of DO and the four CM traits were 0.28±0.079, 0.26±0.101, 0.43±0.134, and 0.15±0.131. For the 140 sires in the dataset, Spearman rank correlations among breeding values for the four CM traits and for SCS305 were uniformly high at 0.99±0.001.
The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variations and relationships across evolutionary related cervid species in order to estimate the genetic diversity of the Red deer population that inhabits the forest area in the south-western part of Slovakia. The study was based on the application of cross-species SNP genotyping. The genomic data were obtained from a total of 86 individuals representing six genera (Axis, Dama, Cervus, Alces, Rangifer, and Odocoileus) using Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. From 38.85% of successfully genotyped loci up to 1,532 SNPs showed polymorphism and were informative for subsequent analyses of the diversity and interspecific genetic relationships. Generally, a good level of observed heterozygosity was found across all species. The value of FIS (0.23±0.13) signalised the increase of a homozygous proportion within them. The application of molecular variance analysis to the hierarchical population structure showed that most of the variation was conserved within separate species (96%). The performed diversity analysis of Slovak Red deer population and comparative analysis of their phylogenic relationships among subspecies from genus Cervus did not identify a remarkable loss of genetic variability. Also, were not identified any degree of admixture that could be due to the historical background of deer farming in Slovakia or reintroduction and hybridisation by other species from genus Cervus (C. canadensis, and C. nippon) which are the major risk of loss of autochthonous Red deer populations in many areas of Central Europe. The analysis of individual’s ancestry showed consistent results with patterns of evaluated group differentiations which means low migration rates among all species.