Cesarean section is a life-saving surgical procedure usually undertaken in sheep and goats that fail to deliver vaginally (dystocia). Unfortunately, there are no recent review articles in literature that summarize the results of published case reports and clinical trials concerning indications, surgical approaches and procedures and outcomes following cesarean section in sheep and goats. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compile available data related to dystocia and cesarean section in small ruminants. Fortunately, the incidence of dystocia in small ruminants is considered to be low. It can be caused by either maternal or fetal factors. Maternal-related dystocia is most commonly because of failure of cervical dilation, narrow birth canal and uterine inertia. Those related to fetal causes are usually associated with fetal malposition/presentation, feto-pelvic disproportion/fetal oversize, and fetal malformation. Manual extraction of the fetus may be attempted in most cases, however, early surgical intervention by performing cesarean section ensures satisfactory outcome. Cesarean section is usually performed in lateral recumbency through left paralumbar fossa or left paralumbar fossa oblique celiotomy under local analgesia. The success rates and post-operative complications in sheep and goats are underreported; however, early surgical intervention using aseptic technique usually results in a satisfactory outcome for both the dam and newborn with acceptable prognosis for future breeding soundness.
Zuhair Bani Ismail, Myassar O. Alekish, Mofleh S. Awawdeh and Issa Olymat
Vitamin K1 is commonly administered to dairy cattle suffering from uncontrollable hemorrhage and to cattle with known deficiency of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. However, a review of recent literature concludes the absence of available information regarding the safety and effects of this drug in dairy cattle. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the safety and effects of a single intramuscular injection of vitamin K1 (2.5 mg/kg) on various clinical, hematological, serum biochemical and coagulation parameters in adult Holstein dairy cows. Six adult Holstein dairy cows were injected a single intramuscular dose of vitamin K1. Cows were then clinically monitored for 24 hours after drug administration for any abnormal behavioral activities. The heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature, and rumen motility were also reported before and at each follow-up check point after administration of the drug. Whole blood samples were collected before and again at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes and at 24 hours after drug administration. Hematology and serum biochemistry parameters were evaluated to detect any systemic effects. Selected coagulation parameters including the activated partial thromboplastine time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimers, platelets count, and fibrinogen concentrations were determined to evaluate the effect of the drug on coagulation mechanisms. There were no abnormal clinical, pathological, or behavioral activities associated with the drug administration in all cows. In the coagulation profile, there was a significant increase in platelets counts starting from 15 minutes after administration and throughout the observation period. Other coagulation parameters were not significantly changed.
Wael M. Hananeh, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Musa A. Alshehabat and Ja’afar Ali
Non-healing wounds are associated with high morbidity and might greatly impact a patient’s well-being and economic status. For many years, scientific research has focused on developing and testing several natural and synthetic materials that enhance the rate of wound healing or eliminate healing complications. Honey has been used for thousands of years as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, honey has reemerged as a promising wound care product especially for infected wounds and for wounds in diabetic patients. In addition to its proposed potent broad-spectrum antibacterial properties, honey has been claimed to promote wound healing by reducing wound hyperaemia, oedema, and exudate, and by stimulating angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation and epithelialisation. Several animal models, including large animals, dogs and cats, and different species of laboratory animals have been used to investigate the efficacy and safety of various natural and synthetic agents for wound healing enhancement. Interpreting the results obtained by these studies is, however, rather difficult and usually hampered by many limiting factors including great variation in types and origins of honey, the type of animal species used as models, the type of wounds, the number of animals, the number and type of controls, and variation in treatment protocols. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the most recent findings and applications of published experimental and clinical trials using honey as an agent for wound healing enhancement in different animal models.
Wael M. Hananeh, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Musa A. Alshehabat, Mahmoud Abu Abeeleh and Ja’far Hasan Ali
The therapeutic effects of Sidr honey on second-intention healing of contaminated full-thickness skin wounds in dogs were investigated. Povidone-iodine was used as a standard treatment and served as a control. Healthy adult (two-to-four-year-old) mongrels, comprising six dogs and two bitches, were divided into four equal groups in order to obtain multi-aged wounds at the end of the study. Four 2cm × 2cm full-thickness skin wounds were created on both sides of the back area of each dog under general anaesthesia adhering to aseptic technique. Contaminated wounds were then divided into two treatment groups: Group 1, Sidr honey treated (right side wounds) and group 2, povidone-iodine treated (left side wounds). All wounds were evaluated grossly daily at the time of treatment application and digitally photographed once every week. Images were analysed using ImageJ software. The parameters of unhealed wound area and length of advancing epithelium were obtained. The epithelialisation areas, percentage of wound area, and wound contraction rate were then calculated. No significant differences were found between the two treatment groups in any of the parameters studied. Overall, both honey treated and iodine treated wounds healed well within the time period of the study (28 d). However, the study showed a beneficial effect of Sidr honey on second-intention healing of full thickness contaminated wounds in healthy dogs and the effect was comparable to that of Povidone iodine.