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  • Author: Zsuzsánna Szántó x
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Open access

Gergő Ráduly, Zsuzsánna Pap, Loránd Dénes, Annamária Szántó and Zoltán Pávai


Introduction: The metanephrogenic zone, renal cortex and renal pyramids develop into their final form by week 13. The metanephric kidney produces large quantities of diluted urine in order to maintain volumes of amniotic fluid. Aquaporins are transmembrane protein channels that enable water transport through biological membranes. Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a water channel found in the supranuclear region and apical area of the cell membrane of the kidneys collecting tubule cells. Its main function is reabsorption of water through vasopressin stimulation.

Materials and methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to study fetal renal tissue of 34 post-mortem fetuses of 9 weeks to 24 weeks gestational age.

Results: AQP2 expression is present in connecting tubules and collecting tubules during the targeted time period. From week 9 to 12, the expression is cytoplasmic. From week 13 to 20 the enhancement of expression in the apical cell membrane occurs with the advancement of fetal age. At the end of the studied period, from week 21 to 24, both cytoplasmic and apical expression were observed. In animal studies AQP2 expression has an increasing trend during development. In contradiction with these results, other authors described low AQP2 levels in the human fetal kidney.

Conclusions: This study helps to understand the amniotic fluid’s homeostasis during pregnancy. In the beginning of the fetal period AQP2 protein is present in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the collecting duct and distal connecting duct. During the fetal period, AQP2 expression in collecting ducts becomes more enhanced in the apical membrane of the cells.

Open access

Anna David, Imre Zoltán Kun, Gábor Nyírő, Zsuzsánna Szántó and Attila Patócs


Introduction: Isolated Short Stature Homeobox (SHOX) gene haploinsufficiency can be found in 2-15% of individuals diagnosed with idiopathic short stature determining different skeletal phenotypes.

Case presentation: We present the history of an 11-year-old female patient diagnosed with idiopathic short stature. Clinically, she was moderately disproportionate, with cubitus valgus and palatum ogivale. Her breast development was in Tanner stage 1 at the time of diagnosis. The endocrine diagnostic tests did not reveal any abnormalities except a slightly elevated thyroid stimulating hormone. We have also assessed the bone radiological findings. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification technique used for the identification of SHOX gene haploinsufficiency showed a heterozygous deletion spanning exons 4-5 of SHOX gene.

Conclusions: This case is determined by deletions in exons 4-5 of SHOX gene and indicates the necessity of screening for SHOX deletions in patients diagnosed with idiopathic short stature, especially in children having increased sitting height-to-height ratio or decreased extremities-to-trunk ratio.

Open access

Annamária Szántó, Zsuzsanna Pap, Z Pávai, I Benedek, Judit Beáta Köpeczi, Aliz- Beáta Tunyogi, Emőke Horváth and Benedek Erzsébet Lázár


Background: The elucidation of the genetic background of the myeloproliferative neoplasms completely changed the management of these disorders: the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome and/or the BCR-ABL oncogene is pathognomonic for chronic myeloid leukemia and identification of JAK2 gene mutations are useful in polycytemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (PMF). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of molecular biology tests in the management of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Materials and methods: We tested the blood samples of 117 patients between April 2008 and February 2013 at the Molecular Biology of UMF Târgu Mureș using RQ-PCR (for M-BCR-ABL oncogene) and/or allele-specific PCR (for JAK2V617F mutation).

Results: Thirty-two patients presented the M-BCR-ABL oncogene, 16 of them were regularly tested as a follow-up of the administered therapy: the majority of chronic phase patients presented decreasing or stable values, while in case of accelerated phase and blast phase the M-BCR-ABL values increased or remained at the same level. Twenty patients were identified with the JAK2V617F mutation: 8 patients with PV, 4 with ET, 3 with PMF, 4 with unclassifiable chronic myeloproliferative disease and 1 patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. There was no case of concomitant occurance of both molecular markers.

Conclusions: Molecular biology testing plays an important role in the management of myeloproliferative neoplasms: identification of the molecular markers confirms the final diagnosis, excluding secondary causes of abnormal blood count parameters. Regular monitoring of MBCR- ABL expression level is useful in the follow-up of therapeutic efficiency.