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Open access

Zsolt Szakály, Ferenc Ihász, Csaba Konczos, Balázs Fügedi and József Bognár


Study aim: Over the last two decades, the body fat mass has been increasing and the level of physical fitness has been decreasing in school-aged children. Due to the health-related concerns that have arisen regarding school-aged children, the Hungarian government introduced everyday physical education in 2012. Since girls are more disposed to higher body fat and low fitness levels, the aim of our study was to characterise the physique, body composition and aerobic capacity of 10 to 14-year-old girls three years after the introduction of the new curriculum with daily PE lessons.

Material and methods: All of the primary schools that were selected to participate in this study serve as partnership schools in the University of West Hungary’s teacher training programme (N = 8). The sample included only those upper primary school girls (10 to 14 years of age) who participated in the everyday physical education lesson (N = 543). Standard anthropometric techniques and a 20m shuttle run test were selected for the analysis.

Results: An important result of this study was the finding that differences in the body composition features were consistently significant among the age groups. However, there were no differences among the age groups in the results of the 20 m multi-stage fitness test, nor in the girls’ relative aerobic capacity.

Conclusions: It can be presumed that an unfavourable body composition and poor fitness occur primarily in the prepuberty years. Everyday physical education serves as a good opportunity for shaping the girls’ fitness level and body composition, and also for encouraging healthy active living.

Open access

Csaba Konczos, József Bognár, Zsolt Szakály, István Barthalos, István Simon and Zsolt Oláh

Health awareness, motor performance and physical activity of female university students

Study aim: To assess body composition, health awareness and cardiorespiratory fitness in female university students differing in volume of obligatory physical activity classes.

Material and methods: 109 female students of the University of West Hungary volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to frequency and volume of obligatory physical activity: students of recreation and health education programmes (RHE; n = 27) and of social pedagogy, tourism and catering, and teacher training programmes (STT; n = 82). Basic somatic characteristics were measured, body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance, cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated using the Rockport Fitness Walking Test and health behaviour was assessed by questionnaire method. Student's t-test for independent samples, the U Mann Whitney test or chi-square test were used in data analysis.

Results: RHE students had higher values of percentage muscle mass (p<0.05) and of cardiorespiratory performance (p<0.001), they also declared significantly more frequently (p<0.001) practicing leisure physical activity as compared with the STT group. However, in both groups the symptoms of unhealthy behaviour were observed.

Conclusions: Although beneficial effects of augmented physical activity on body composition, cardiorespiratory performance and attitudes towards taking up leisure-time activity was noted, attention should be paid to symptoms of unhealthy behaviour observed in female students. This support the need for including obligatory physical education classes in university curriculum and the importance of education and promotion of healthy behaviour among the students.

Open access

István Csáki, Zsolt Szakály, Barbara Fózer-Selmec, Selmeci Zoltán Kiss and József Bognár


Due to the fact that neither physical nor physiological and anthropometric differences in adolescents can serve as definitive differentiating factors in terms of choosing successful and non-successful players, coaches are encouraged to focus more on thepsychological characteristics ofyoung players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine football players’ psychological skills in an elite football academy as related to age and position. Every young player at one of the most successful football academies in the country participated in this study (N=119, M=16.44±1.17). The sample was divided into four age groups according to the championship system (U16, U17, U18, U21), and into specific football positions (goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, and striker). Basedonthe results, the young academy football players had a low level ofamotivation (1.45±0.68), a high level of extrinsic motivation (5.96±0.64), and can be characterized with a higher level task (4.02±0.62) than ego orientation (3.01±0.62). All of the results for coping skills were in the mid-range (M=3.00-3.41). There were no differences in motivation, perceived motivational climate, and coping among the football players regarding their positions. However, there were significant differences among the age groups in perceived motivation and coping skills. Older players were more egooriented and had a higher level of peaking under pressure, while younger players demonstrated higher level task, ego, and coach ability levels. Football coaches need to focus less on positions and more on age differences when dealing with motivation, perceived motivation, and coping.

Open access

Zs. Polereczki, Sz. Vukoszávlyev, M. Véha and Z. Szakály


We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

The marketing-oriented way of thinking still exists among the factors affecting entrepreneurial behaviour, which cannot be found at the level of clusters, according to our results. We could identify 8.3% of the enterprises as having satisfactory marketing activity.