Lavadinović V., Popović Z., Ristić Z., Beuković D.: Threats and international tools for sustainable brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) management. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 345-351, 2013.
Negative relation between humans and large carnivores with unprofitable management caused a decrease in abundance of the latter within their natural habitat. Main reasons for negative attitudes of humans towards large carnivores are damages, fear and unfamiliarity with their characteristics. Brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a European autochthonous large carnivore. Although it is not threatened at the global level, its abundance in Europe is limited to several populations. Protection has an important role in brown bear conservation, since they face different threats, mainly by negative human activities. Conservation of the brown bear is complicated due to its habitats overlapping with the human environment and also because brown bears require large territories. In order to protect brown bears more efficiently, it is important to identify the threats and to conduct the species protection by international recommendations and agreements. In this paper, we analysed brown bear distribution in Europe, abundance limitation factors and international conservation instruments.
The paper presents results of the measurements of the tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration and meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, speed and wind direction. The data were collected from January 2016 to December 2016 at station located in locality Centre (Banja Luka), Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants to plants and health and highly reactive secondary pollutant. The present study covers investigation of the relationship between the concentration of ozone and meteorological parameters as well as time variations of ozone concentration (by hours, months, seasons). This topic has not been studied up to now in this region, although the recent research data indicates that there is a correlation between them and previously obtained from the world’s relevant scientific centres, as already cited above. Statistical analysis confirms string of rolls, which shows directional connection between tropospheric ozone and meteorological parameters, specially temperature (r = 0.148), air pressure (r = –0.292) and relative humidity (r = –0.292). These parameters are the most important meteorological factors influencing the variation in ozone levels during the research. The correlation ozone concentrations with speed and direction of wind is not significant, like other parameters.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) is an allochtonous game species of great importance to the hunting sector in Serbia. Growing concerns over a decline in its population raise issues about the proper management and hunting of common pheasants. As this research tends to identify the importance of common pheasants to Serbian hunters, the present study is based on a mixed research model combining traditional analyses with social studies on Serbian hunters. The data utilized have been collected from the annual management plans of 272 hunting grounds across Serbia and the interviews with 377 hunters. The results obtained suggest that there are significant differences between the analyzed variables in the management plans examined, which indicates that the pheasant hunting management in Serbia is not harmonized. However, the social studies conducted identify the common pheasant as the most hunted and popular game species with Serbian hunters. Accordingly, the common pheasant hunting and management in Serbia has to be improved in order to meet the hunters’ expectations and ensure their satisfaction.
Background: Toxic hepatitis may clinically manifest as other diseases of the liver, where it must always be considered in differential diagnoses of unexplained liver damage, such as poisoning with kombucha tea.
Case report: 47-year old female patient was hospitalized and has consumed daily ounces of kombucha tea. During hospitalization patient was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis and treated with intravenous solutions of hepatic protective and ursodeoxycholic-acid (effective therapy).
Conclusion: Examinations showed that kombucha tea has potential to revert the CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity, but used in overdose can induce toxicity himself.
Covering almost the entire territory of Serbia, hunting grounds occupy a unique role not only in the country’s hunting practices but also in game management and wildlife conservation. Therefore, it is useful to be acquainted with their characteristics in order to manage game in a sustainable manner. Nevertheless, there has not been a proper study on the condition of hunting grounds in Serbia since the country’s transition process, which reshaped the hunting sector as a whole. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the features of hunting grounds in Serbia in order to establish a base for future scientific research and appropriate decision making. The research results were obtained on the basis of the data on 272 hunting grounds in Serbia, collated during the hunting year of 2012/2013 and compared with the last comprehensive hunting analysis at the national level in 2001. The analysis suggests that the regal hunting system is still predominant in Serbia. The quality of hunting grounds has been enhanced to a certain extent, although there are yet some challenges which pose a threat to sustainable management such as the oversized hunting areas, lack of employees and poor financial condition.
The quality and quantity of natural food resources and food from agricultural land vary considerably depending on the type of the hunting ground and the season. In order to achieve better body weight of the hunted pheasants, to preserve their number and achieve better reproductive potential of these birds, supplemental feeding is necessary. Previous studies have shown that feeding of pheasants in hunting grounds in all seasons, and especially during the winter, yields positive results. The achieved results, however, are significantly dependent on the degree of anthropogenic activity in the hunting grounds, as well as the amount of natural food. Moreover, nutrition must be adequate not only in terms of the quantity, but also the quality. This means that instead of single feeds (most commonly cereals: wheat, corn, etc.), complete mixtures should be used, which is a costly solution. However, pheasants aged five or more months are increasingly in demand for hunting on the polygons. Nevertheless, hunting in preserved nature and with a diverse wildlife fund will never lose its significance.