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Open access

Ábrám Zoltán

Abstract

Fodor József (1843–1901) is the founder of Hungarian hygiene who established the second hygiene department and hygiene institute in the world; he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He lived in the era of great microbiological discoveries, and his rich and multidisciplinary work has opened up new directions and approaches in science. For a short period of time he was professor at the newly established university from Cluj (Kolozsvár), later he had important contributions to the Hungarian public health act of 1876. His entire professional career represents a very special model by the messages left behind. He was proposed for Nobel Prize in medical (biological) sciences, but he suddenly died on 20 March 1901.

Open access

Valentin Nadasan, Gabriella Gabos, Monica Tarcea and Zoltan Abram

Abstract

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of snacking and to explore the relationship between snacking and several demographic, anthropometric, functional and biochemical factors. Methods: The study included 756 individuals over 18 years of age from Medias, Romania. Demographics and data about snacking were collected by trained volunteers. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure were measured with standard equipment according to accepted procedures. Blood glucose and cholesterol were measured by experienced nurses using portable devices. Associations between variables were checked with the Pearson Chi-square test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between binary variables. Results: About half of the subjects in the studied sample reported snacking less than 2 times / week, 34.5% between 3-4 times / week and 14.8% more than 4 times / week. Statistical analysis found that snacking was associated with gender (males being less likely to snack than females), ethnicity (non-Romanians being less likely to snack than Romanian ethnics), marital status of the subjects (not married people being less likely to snack than married people ), systolic blood pressure (people consuming more often snacks being less likely to have high systolic blood pressure values), and blood sugar level (people eating more frequently between meals being more likely to have higher blood glucose levels). Conclusions: Snacking was a widespread eating habit among the study participants and was significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, marital status, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

Open access

Ferencz Lorand, Finta Hajnal, Schmidt Lorand, Balint Iosif, Nadasan Valentin and Abram Zoltan

Abstract

Background: Smoking is a problem of the modern world and annually produces more victims, and due to ignorance and lack of health education in our country the disease diagnosis is made at an advanced stage. Many studies show that, young people aged between 10 and 18 are smokers and start smoking at an increasingly early age.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the smoking habits of institutionalized children in family care homes from Harghita and Mures county.

Methods: The method chosen was a sociological survey based on questionnaires. Our study included 254 children institutionalized in family care homes in Mures county and 254 children from Harghita county. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Results: A statistically significant difference was obtained analyzing the number of smokers from the group of children under 12 years in Mures compared to the Harghita county. More than half of children smoked their first cigarette after they entered in family care homes in both counties and the most common setting in which the children were smoking was when being together with their friends.

Conclusions: In Mures county the number of smokers under the age of 12 was significantly higher than in Harghita county. Despite the educational classes and institutional regulations of smoking, more than half of children smoke. The decisive role in testing of smoking are the friends. Due to the very high number of underage smokers, the prevention and education hours have an unquestionable importance.

Open access

Nădăşan Valentin, Sîmpetrean Andreea, Tarcea Monica and Abram Zoltan

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding dietary fats among mothers in Romania.

Material and methods: A sample of 305 mothers from Romania were included in a cross-sectional observational study. The online questionnaire addressed their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the dietary fats used in their children’s diet. The frequencies and proportions of the collected variables were calculated based on respondents’ answers.

Results: While almost all the respondents (94.8%) believed that mothers are supposed to know the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats, only less than half of them (39.7%) stated that they know the difference. As far as the types of margarine, although more than half of the respondents (64.7%) believed that mothers should be able to discriminate between the hydrogenated and interesterified margarine, only 11.5% claimed that they are able to discern between them. The actual ability to identify foods rich in saturated fats varied in a great degree from item to item. More common dietary fats such as sunflower oil, corn oil, and lard, were more frequently identified than less common dietary fats such as coconut oil and palm oil. Only 16.4% of the mothers were able to correctly differentiate hydrogenated from interesterified margarine. The most frequently used spreadable fat used in the children’s diet was butter and the most frequently used cooking fats were sunflower oil, olive oil, and butter.

Conclusion: The results of this study might be informative in the development of maternal nutrition education programs.

Open access

Zoltán Ábrám, Monica Tarcea, Hajnal Finta, H Moldovan, Geanina Moldovan and V Nădășan

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the water quality of several local sources from the Toplița-Deda region, as well as from the Gheorgheni basin, in order to inform the population about the water quality and about the importance of the drinking water control.

Method: Repeated water samples were collected from a total number of 41 sources in the two studied regions during 2010. A multiparametric colorimeter, Hanna Instruments C99 was used to determine certain physical and chemical parameters. A number of current and specific microbiological analyses were also carried out.

Results: The average values and the percentage of the positive samples with values above permitted limits were calculated. The highest accepted levels were based on Law no. 458/2002 regarding drinkable water quality. Among the mineral indicators iron exceeded the limit in 18.18% and water samples were poor in fluoride (83.65%) and in iodine (98.18%). A small percentage of sources (3.63%) indicated pollution, 10.9% had high nitrate level. Analyzing the microbiological content, our water samples were within the drinkability limits required by law.

Conclusion: Our study emphasizes the importance of monitoring water supplies, the awareness of the water quality according to mineral composition, pollution estimation and microbiological characteristics in order to prevent the unexpected influence on the health status of the consumer population.

Open access

Florina Ruţa, Monica Tarcea, Victoria Stere, Zoltan Abram and Călin Avram

Abstract

Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

Main objective is identification of behavioral risk factors during pregnancy in a group of recently given birth women, hospitalized in three maternities of Tirgu Mures County.

Open access

Fejér Enikő Réka, Bodi Andrea, Egyed-Zsigmond Imre, Jung Ioan, Voidăzan Septimiu and Ábrám Zoltán

Abstract

Although head and neck cancers have a rising incidence, these diseases are less investigated because of their localisations’ heterogenity. The major risk factors susceptible to influence the evolution of the disease are smoking, alcohol consumption and infection with human papilloma virus. Using data from Mures County Emergency Hospital’s histopathology register, we made a retrospective study of 190 cases from the last two years. Factors of interest included age, sex, localization, histopathological subtype and differentiation grade. Median age at diagnosis was 61.31 years, the disease presenting highest incidence in the 51-60 age subgroup and a clear male predominance (5.75:1). The most frequent localization is lower lip (28%) and the dominant histopathological subtype is cheratinised squamous cell carcinoma (83,8%) and G2 differentiation grade (48,1%). This study supports the finding of increased incidence of cheratinised squamous cell carcinoma in this region. However the literature emphasizes rising incidence of head and neck cancer in younger, we observed that increase in Mures area occurred in 51-60 age group. Lower lip most frequent localization makes possible an early diagnosis.

Open access

Ruţa Florina, Avram Călin, Voidăzan Septimiu, Rus Victoria, Georgescu Mihai, Abram Zoltan and Tarcea Monica

Abstract

Background. It is well-known that the exposure during pregnancy to lifestyle risk factors can affect thehealth both for the mother and the fetus. There are many risk factors for pregnancy, including: smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary pattern, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge regarding health prevention. The main objective of our study was to assess the practices, knowledge and attitudes towards lifestyle risk behaviors during pregnancy in a group of women from Tirgu-Mures area.

Materials and methods. We used a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire, assessingsmoking behavior and lifestyle patterns during pregnancy, on a group of 481 women from the urban area (58.84%), as well as from the rural area (41.16%) from Mures county.

Results. In the study group, 190 women (39.5%) used to smoke before pregnancy; among which 37.36% continued to smoke even after they found out they are pregnant. In the group of pregnant women that continued to smoke during pregnancy, we have studied other behavioral factors related to lifestyle, identifying the following: 5,73% have been consuming alcohol weekly, 56.33% reduced greatly their physical activity level, 3.63% have been consuming at least 3 cups of coffee a day. During pregnancy, 12.72% did not have a regular, daily meal serving plan, and 67.26% was a little or not at all concerned about their eating habits. Only 30.9% from the smoking pregnant women group have received information from the family doctor (GP) regarding the risk factors of smoking habits, while 38.18% did not receive any information.

Conclusions. Behavioral risk factors in pregnancy have to be followed closely by the HealthCare System in order to avoid complications for the mother and the child. The best way of accomplishing that is through an efficient community intervention.

Open access

Ion Mihai Georgescu, Monica Tarcea, Claudiu Marginean, Florina Ruta, Victoria Rus, Remus Sipos and Zoltan Abram

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between the frequency of self-declared status regarding smoking in a group of pregnant women from Mures county, Romania and the high levels of Salivary Cotinine (SC) like biomarkers. Material and methods: It was conducted a retrospective study among 230 pregnant women presented for prenatal care at 50 General Practitioners cabinets in Mures county, Romania, in 2015. Data were collected with a validated questionnaire which included age, level of education, socioeconomic status and ethnicity, also the self-reported smoking status. The Salivary Cotinine level was evaluated using NicAlert Saliva test kits. Results: Using salivary test we identified a high prevalence of involuntary exposure to cigarette smoke among both non-smokers and those who quit smoking before pregnancy. Also we registered pregnant women that although declared smoking cessation before pregnancy their salivary Cotinine levels were high, almost like to an active smoker, probably because of second-hand exposure or because they didn’t say the truth about their habit. Conclusions: We underline the importance of implementing more efficient community interventions among this vulnerable group in order to reduce the frequency of smoking and sustain quitting.

Open access

Márton István Dénes, Cristian Borz, Árpád Török, Tibor Kántor, Valentin Nădășan, Mónika Csibi and Zoltán Ábrám

Abstract

Introduction. Smoking is an important public health issue nowadays. It causes a lot of diseases and represents also a source of carcinogenic substances. Recent studies showed an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in smokers. The aim of our study is to assess the association between smoking and colorectal cancer and to establish the prevalence of heavy smokers among the patients operated on for colorectal cancer.

Methodology. We run a retrospective study of the charts belonging to the patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and operated on in our department between 2004 and 2013. The patients were classified in smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. The amount of tobacco was evaluated according to the number of smoked cigarettes per day, the smoking period, respectively the pack-years. The data were corroborated with the location of the tumor and analyzed using the online version of Graphpad.

Results. From 982 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, we found 297 smokers (30.24%). Among these, 106 patients (35.69%) have smoked for over 30 years, at least 20 cigarettes per day, more than 30 pack-years. The number of heavy smokers was significantly greater (p=0.0001) in the group with rectal cancer compared to the group with colon cancer. The association of smoking with rectal cancer was also important (p=0.0015) among the former smokers.

Conclusions. Smoking is related to higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Our data sustain the hypothesis of increased risk of developing rectal cancer in heavy smokers. We recommend the screening for colorectal cancer among the heavy smoker population.