Editor-in-chief Zoltán Varga
The essay explores a certain tendency of Hungarian animated film related to a strategy of constructing meaning. The so-called Aesopic language, which can be found in Hungarian animated film, is interested in creating ambiguity, hidden meanings, especially against oppressive political systems. The paper approaches the development of the Aesopic language in Hungarian animated film based on two factors. The first one examines the characteristics of the animated film in general, focusing on the double sense of the animated image. The second one is a historical approach, considering how the Communist regime affected artistic freedom, and how the Aesopic language became general in Central and Eastern Europe during the decades of Communism. After delineating the concept, the essay continues with interpretations of Hungarian animated films produced by the famous Pannonia Film Studio as examples of the Aesopic language. The paper distinguishes between a less and a more direct variant of creating ambiguity, depending on whether the animated films lack or contain explicit references to the Communist system. The group o|f the less direct variant includes Rondino, Changing Times and The Fly, among the examples of the more direct variant we can find Storv about N, Our Holidays and Mind the Steps!.
Zoltán Varga, Milan Kriška, Viera Kristová and Miriam Petrová
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) belong to the most widely prescribed and used pharmacological agents worldwide. Data gathered in the last decade show increased incidence of thrombotic events during NSAID administration. Analysis of NSAID usage and assessment of risk for development of cardiovascular adverse effects is needed for improving patient safety. For limiting the impact of adverse effects on the health of patients, NSAID users should be informed about the possible adverse effects and their symptoms to ensure early detection and treatment discontinuation. In the presented study, we retrospectively analyzed the administration of NSAIDs in a group of patients (n=428) in need of analgesic treatment hospitalized at a department of internal medicine. Factors increasing the risk for cardiovascular adverse effects were also investigated. A separate questionnaire study was conducted to gather information concerning the knowledge of hospitalized NSAID users (n=251) about adverse effects of the medication used. For purpose of comparison, we conducted a similar study in a group of 234 random respondents from a shopping center. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Student´s t-test and chi-squared test. Our results suggest that the majority of patients treated with NSAIDs have factors indicating increased risk of development of adverse effects, most commonly arterial hypertension (58.2% of patients). The results of our questionnaire study show limited knowledge of NSAID users about the risk of the therapy. Nearly half of the respondents were unaware of any adverse effects. We consider as alarming that only a limited number of respondents were informed by their physician or pharmacist about the possible risks of treatment. In conclusion, we found that hospitalized NSAID users often have a history of diseases predisposing to the development of cardiovascular adverse effects of NSAIDs. Despite this, their knowledge about the risk of treatment is insufficient.
Imola Cseh Papp, Erika Varga, Zoltán Szira and László Hajós
According to the OECD, active employment policies include all social expenditure that are directed at improving the chances of finding a job and income generation (except education). Active labour market policies are around to assist in enhancing labour market flexibility at the times of economic changes. Their key components are the so-called activation strategies that act as typical prerequisites of benefitting from unemployment security/support systems in every EU country. The workfare concept lies behind the public work programmes. There are serious professional debates whether public work can primarily be seen as a ’compulsion and work test’ or, rather, as an opportunity of entering the primary labour market. The available efficiency analyses unanimously state that public work forms have the biggest role in testing willingness to work and the obligatory nature is the strongest of all active labour market policies. Research also indicates that public work reintegrates only few people back to the primary labour market and the majority are restrained from seeking a job and other income generating activities. There are several reasons for and against public work and opinions differ. The paper summarises the benefits and drawbacks on the basis of international and Hungarian analyses.
Erika Varga, Zoltán Szira, Kinga Ilona Bárdos and László Hajós
Our paper is aimed at examining what principal business competencies (can) enhance the success and competitiveness of employees according to the employers and we also wish to explore what personality traits have a decisive effect on the decision-making mechanism in taking on new staff. At present employers can make selection from a lot of fresh graduates in economics so for them it is essential to know the competencies by which they are classified and ranked by the employers. However, it is also important to bear in mind from which aspects their opinion meet the employers′ expectations. Based on surveying the employers′ expectations, the required competencies play a vital role in the hiring process and they are mainly acquired in practical trainings. An answer is also sought to the question of how the rank order of competencies have been changed, how their role was appreciated and reevaluated and what skills and abilities are no longer or only to a slight extent necessary for success in the labour market vs. the ones that were not required previously but have become indispensable these days. One of our further objectives was to create and test a competency structure tailored to the current Hungarian labour market situation and specialities on the basis of the professional literature.
Viera Kristová, Milan Kriška, Róbert Vojtko, Miriam Petrová, Silvia Líšková, Radoslav Villáris, Zoltán Varga and Martin Wawruch
Trends in vascular pharmacology research in the Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava
Research in the Department of Pharmacology started to focus intensively on fetal circulation in the 60s. Results of experiments contributed to clarification of the conversion of fetal circulation type to the adult type: the mechanism of the ductus arteriosus closure, examination of fetal and neonatal pulmonary vessel responses. In the early 80s, increased attention was dedicated to fetal vascular endothelium, later on to vascular reactivity in relation to the endothelium in adult animals. We developed original models of vascular endothelial damage using the perfusion method (repeated vasoconstrictive stimuli, deendothelization by air bubbles). We developed a new technique for in vitro endothelial loss quantification on Millipore filters. Under in vitro conditions, the protective effects of sulodexide and pentoxifylline on vascular endothelium were evaluated. In recent years were studied protective effects of selected substances in vivo in models of endothelial damage (e.g. stress, toxic tissue damage, diabetes mellitus, hypertension). The role of potassium channels in the hypertension model was studied in cooperation with the Czech Academy of Sciences. Assessment of vascular reactivity in the diabetic model was significantly improved by computer. In addition to experimental work, the department is solving problems of clinical pharmacology - especially drug risk evaluation (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Recently, we have dealt with pharmacoepidemiological studies in geriatric patients and with cardiovascular risk of NSAIDs in relation to pharmacotherapy. The results of these studies may be an impulse for targeted problem solving in our experiments.
József Poór, Csaba Kollár, Zoltán Szira, Vas Taras and Erika Varga
Objective: Our paper examines the X-Culture challenges and experience through the eyes of professors and students alike and draws attention to the significance of such projects in international business practices in addition to examining the key influencing factors of interculturalism and ICT technologies.
Methodology: The students were asked to share their experience with us in a report or at an interview. Most participants considered the program to be very useful. They made the greatest progress in understanding and communicating with others and also appreciated working and collaborating with the others from different working cultures. The research was carried out in the countries of Eastern Europe to present our experience.
Findings: One of the consequences of globalization is that the various forms of contact are becoming independent of place. Adaptation to the new dimensions can be eased if the students can take part in international cooperation. A lot of students have improved their chances of landing an attractive job on the labor market and extended their social and professional networks by participating in X-Culture International Student Collaboration Project. Challenges were posed mainly by differences in time, but also cultural differences and language barriers were frequent.
Value Added: The students of our universities have taken part in the X-Culture program. In addition to studying the course material and gaining special skills in writing business plans, challenges can be experienced, and best practices learned.
Recommendations: It is extremely important in shaping the business environment of future workplaces so that is why such programs should be included in the curricula of business schools and management development programs.
József Gyurácz, Péter Bánhidi, József Góczán, Péter Illés, Sándor Kalmár, Péter Koszorús, Zoltán Lukács, Csaba Németh and László Varga
The fieldwork, i.e. catching and ringing birds using mist-nets, was conducted at Tömörd Bird Ringing Station in western Hungary during the post-breeding migration seasons in 1998-2016. Altogether, 106,480 individuals of 133 species were ringed at the station. The aim of this paper was to publish basic information on passerine migration at this site. Migration phenology was described through annual and daily capture frequencies. Furthermore, we provide the median date of the passage, the date of the earliest or latest capture, the peak migration season within the study period, and the countries where the birds monitored at the site were ringed or recovered abroad. To compare the catching dynamics for the fifty species with total captures greater than 200, a reference period was defined: from 5 Aug. to 5 Nov. 2001-2016. Some non-passerines that are more easily caught with mist-nets or that are caught occasionally were listed as well. The two superdominant species, the European Robin and the Eurasian Blackcap, with 14,377 and 13,926 total captures, made up 27% of all ringed individuals. Among the fifty species analysed, there were ten species with a decreasing trend, five species with an increasing trend and thirty-five species with a stable (or uncertain) trend in their numbers from 2001 to 2016. The temporal pattern of migration of long-distance migrants was different from that of the medium- and short-distance migratory species.