There is a strong relationship between groups of users who don’t use anti-virus and those who don’t backup their data, meaning that a similar proportion of users don't use either of these two means of protection. In case of users who lack knowledge in informatics there is an increase in the number of virus attacks; these users are more likely to not use anti-virus and neglect to back up their data. For digital systems, users who are – based on our classification – in a lower rank, represent increased risk based on the number of the occurred virus attacks. For every user group there is a need for continuous and repeated safety awareness training to reach and retain a high safety level/
Zoltán Nyikes, Norbert Daruka and Tünde Anna Kovács
Unfortunately, people can’t live in peace in this century: many wars and terrorist attacks have been witnessed even within the last year. In the case of such attacks, both the people and the civil infrastructure is in danger [1-3]. The modern age (infrastructure) provides electrical networks and communication networks for the citizens. Without electricity and/or communications (e.g. the internet), urban life is paralysed. Explosions create heat and shock waves and their effects can potentially damage the wall and cables of a building as changes in the material structure occur. In this article, the authors introduce a blast load effect testing method in an empirical way. The metal microstructure deformation level is measurable by changes in resistance, because resistance is a physical property which depends on the crystal structure of the metal.
In the current century, building protection is very important in the face of terrorist attacks. The old buildings in Europe are not sufficiently resilient to the loads produced by blasts. We still do not fully understand the effects of different explosives on buildings and human bodies. [1–3] Computing blast loads are different from that of traditional loads and the material selection rules for this type of impact load are diverse. Historical and old buildings cannot be protected simply by new walls and fences. New ways need to be found to improve a building’s resistance to the effects of a blast. It requires sufficiently thin yet strong retrofitted materials in order to reinforce a building’s walls [4–6].
Industrially produced rails can contain some inherent failures without evident damage. If a fracture propagates beyond a critical size, it can lead to breakage. The study of fracture mechanics suggests many different theories for detecting the fracture. Continuous monitoring of the rail surface state is necessary in order to assure uninterrupted and safe transportation.