There is a strong relationship between groups of users who don’t use anti-virus and those who don’t backup their data, meaning that a similar proportion of users don't use either of these two means of protection. In case of users who lack knowledge in informatics there is an increase in the number of virus attacks; these users are more likely to not use anti-virus and neglect to back up their data. For digital systems, users who are – based on our classification – in a lower rank, represent increased risk based on the number of the occurred virus attacks. For every user group there is a need for continuous and repeated safety awareness training to reach and retain a high safety level/
The goal of this work was to invent a high energy absorbing composite material. This composite needs to be able to attach on the building's surfaces and increase blast-resistance. In this innovation, the test samples were reinforced with aramidfiber, glass fiber and carbon fiber and tested by Charpy pendulum impact testing machine. During the tests, the aramid and glass fiber reinforced composites showed good resistance and high energy absorption against impact load.
In the current century, building protection is very important in the face of terrorist attacks. The old buildings in Europe are not sufficiently resilient to the loads produced by blasts. We still do not fully understand the effects of different explosives on buildings and human bodies. [1–3] Computing blast loads are different from that of traditional loads and the material selection rules for this type of impact load are diverse. Historical and old buildings cannot be protected simply by new walls and fences. New ways need to be found to improve a building’s resistance to the effects of a blast. It requires sufficiently thin yet strong retrofitted materials in order to reinforce a building’s walls [4–6].
Unfortunately, people can’t live in peace in this century: many wars and terrorist attacks have been witnessed even within the last year. In the case of such attacks, both the people and the civil infrastructure is in danger [1-3]. The modern age (infrastructure) provides electrical networks and communication networks for the citizens. Without electricity and/or communications (e.g. the internet), urban life is paralysed. Explosions create heat and shock waves and their effects can potentially damage the wall and cables of a building as changes in the material structure occur. In this article, the authors introduce a blast load effect testing method in an empirical way. The metal microstructure deformation level is measurable by changes in resistance, because resistance is a physical property which depends on the crystal structure of the metal.
Industrially produced rails can contain some inherent failures without evident damage. If a fracture propagates beyond a critical size, it can lead to breakage. The study of fracture mechanics suggests many different theories for detecting the fracture. Continuous monitoring of the rail surface state is necessary in order to assure uninterrupted and safe transportation.
In this work, the authors give an overview of the advancement of industrial robots and show the mechanization of welding processes, step by step. As manual welding is a physically exhausting professional work, engineers have sought to improve work conditions since the industrial revolution. Unfortunately, even today, many procedures can only be performed manually. In the welding process, the highest level of mechanization is represented by the use of robotics. The entrance of Robots in the history of welding is recent, though their spread and development are rapid.
For evolving a surface layer on the X40CrMoV5-1 steel, a plasma-nitridation and PVD coating process was applied. In our experiments, the samples were heat-treated (high-temperature hardening, annealed three times) and surface treatments (plasma-nitridation, PVD coating by TiAlN, duplex surface treating by plasma nitridation and after that, PVD coating TiAlN). After the heat treatments, we performed hardness tests and surface abrasion wear tests. The abrasion wear resistance of the specimens was studied in order to understand the heat treatment effects on abrasion behaviour. It was observed that the heat treatment and surface treatment process greatly influence the tool steel surface hardness and abrasion resistance behaviour. By plasma-nitridation the surface hardness doubled compared to the quenched surface hardness while the PVD coated TiAlN surface layer hardness is more than five times that of the hardened one. There was no relevant difference between the PVD coated (TiAlN) surface hardness and the duplex surface-treated hardness. On the basis of the results of the comparative abrasive wear tests, it can be concluded that the duplex surface treatment resulted in the greatest wear resistance..