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  • Author: Zofia Wysokińska x
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Europe’s demographic problem (an ageing population) is well-known and has been the object of a number of research projects in the EU. As an example of the scale of the problem, the percentage of persons 55 or older in the overall population of the EU was 30% in 2010, and is expected to rise to 37% in 2030. Raising the retirement age - the response implemented in a number of EU Member States in recent years - cannot be considered as a comprehensive solution to the problem. Older persons encounter more difficulties finding employment, even though they possess knowledge and experience which could be valuable in the conduct of economic activities. Recent years have witnessed a growth in the trend toward “active ageing”, which is considered to be ‘a process of optimization of the chances for good health, active participation, and security, in order to improve the quality of life over the passage of time’, a concept closely correlated with the idea of entrepreneurship among the elderly.It can be noted that there is no comprehensive policy supporting entrepreneurship of elderly people in the age of the Ageing Society in Europe. The aim of the paper is to present the foreseen benefits of the development of enterpreneurship of elderly people supporting policy in the EU and in Poland


The aim of this paper is to present selected results achieved by the Member States of the EU in the context of the recent global and European strategies oriented toward enhancement of the role of renewable energy sources and on mitigation of negative climate changes in the Earth. Special attention has been paid to those countries that have approached or already reached, in the year 2012, a share of renewable energy indicators at a percentage level higher than the required 20%.

The Competitiveness of Poland on the Environmental Products and Services Market

The aim of the paper is to present main aspects related to the characteristics of the market of environmental goods and services as one of the most potentially fast developing markets in the world economy (among such markets with similar size as, the pharmaceuticals and information technology markets). The paper will also examine some effects of environmental measures on market access within the multilateral liberalization process.

This is a very positive phenomenon in this age of ever increasing attention paid to the implementation of principles of sustainable development as well as decreased barriers for improving access to developing markets in the case of both economically highly developed countries and in developing countries. The elimination of trade barriers in foreign trade for goods and services also increases the efficiency of the world economic system by enabling countries to specialize in those sectors in which they possess economic advantages, which includes those sectors in which they possess favorable natural environmental conditions. The analysis of these goods and services is related also to some regulations of the Committee for Trade and Environment of the WTO with special reference to conclusions of the Fourth and Fifth Ministerial Conferences in Doha and Cancun.

Poland has relatively small, but still growing position in the analyzed market. As a member of the European Union, Poland should side with an acceleration in negotiations relating to the quick opening up of environmental services markets within the framework of the Doha Round.

Completion of the Common Internal Market of Recycling in the EU - Position of New Member States

In the paper will be presented the analysis of ecological competitiveness in the EU ("old" and "new" Member States) recycling market within the process of the establishment of common standards related to the Prevention and Recycling of Waste. The paper examined advantages of common standards for Europe from the point of view of the completion of the common internal market of recycling within the EU Strategy promoting the sustainable growth.

Sustainable Development in the European Union and World Economy-Main Selected Aspects

The aim of the paper is to present key theoretical and empirical issues of sustainable development and environmental protection issues from the global and European perspective, with special reference to the implication of this concept for Central and Eastern European members of the EU.

Main aspects are discussed in the paper from the EU and global perspective, with special reference to: the global partnership for sustainable development; fighting poverty and promoting social development; sustainable management of natural and environmental resources; trading in greenhouse gas emission allowances; main global and European challenges; goals and challenges facing the European Union member states as stemming from major strategic European Union renewed documents promoting sustainable development; especially promoting consumption and production that is sustainable and environmentally-friendly and green labeling system; a detailed look at "new" environmental policies; with special reference to sustainable transportation; a strategy for the sustainable use of natural resources; preventive strategy (preventing the creation of wastes) and waste recycling; sustainable and competitive tourism.

European Union Entrepreneurship and Innovativeness Support Policy for Businesses

The development of entrepreneurship as well as research and innovation have direct impact on growth in the level of economic development as well as the prosperity of individual citizens and society in general. The primary goal of policies involving research and technological development is establishing the European Union as a leading knowledge-based economy. Innovativeness is also the main factor in improving the competitiveness of companies.

The key to improving the economic situation in Poland is the strengthening of innovative attitudes among entrepreneurs. An efficiently running institutional system guaranteeing effective support instruments for entrepreneurs and the scientific-research sphere as well as guaranteeing the unhindered transfer of knowledge should prove helpful.

As the main factor in improving the competitiveness of companies, innovativeness is mainly the result of the development of collaboration between the spheres of science and business as well as the use of patent achievements in companies.

The drive behind future growth in the European Union will be sectors based on knowledge and innovation. However, these require a solid industrial network and resources allowing the utilization of new technologies.

To a great extent, growth in entrepreneurship and innovativeness as significant factors in the economic development of Europe and Poland is dependent on the elimination of administrative barriers for companies and the introduction of the facilitating of information and communication (ICT) as needed for them to function.


This article presents the results of analysis and evaluation of the main effects of the implementation of the eight UN Millennium Development Goals, in force until 2015, and to demonstrate differences between and prospects for implementation of the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, covering 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) established by the international community for the next 15 years. The article also presents the contribution of the European Union as a key global donor of development aid for developing countries, especially for the least developed countries (LDCs), as well as plans for Poland’s implementation of the Post-2015 Agenda SDGs.


The aim of this paper is to present the results of an analysis and evaluation of the implementation of one of the tasks of the Strategy for Responsible Development (SRD) until 2020 (with a perspective up to 2030), adopted in Poland, which should increase Poland’s foreign expansion.

The paper attempts to present these results in the context of diagnoses, forecasts and recommendations (developed by experts of global organizations) regarding macroeconomic policy directions for the coming years recommended for member countries of such organizations as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group, the OECD and UNCTAD/UN.


The aim of the paper is to present the interrelationship between the sustainable energy, especially renewable energy sector and sustainable agriculture policy from both: the European and the global perspectives.

In the world and European economy the role of Renewable Energy Technologies is still increasing. Energy efficiency; sustainable agriculture; renewable energies for rural development belong to main poles of sustainable development in the world economy and its regions.

Agriculture is one of the economic sectors to which the EU commitment to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases applies. Like any other economic sector, agriculture produces greenhouse gases and is a major source of the non- CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. It is also the strong relationship between the sustainable agriculture sector and the renewable energy development possibilities. The sustainable agriculture can be seen as a source of renewable energy.


The aim of the paper is to present selected aspects of sustainable development related to environmental protection and the creation of a green economy, with special reference to the global and European context for the development of an environmentally friendly goods and services market, taking into account the cases of Central and Eastern European countries. One of the most important elements of the strategy to promote clean economic growth and foster the transition to a more sustainable and greener economy is the energy sector, where the aim is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sulfur oxides and support the development of renewable energy sources. Some of the achieved results in this area are presented in this paper.