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Zheshu Ma and Jieer Wu

Efficiency optimization of a closed indirectly fired gas turbine cycle working under two variable-temperature heat reservoirs

Indirectly or externally fired gas turbines (IFGT or EFGT) are interesting technologies under development for small and medium scale combined heat and power (CHP) supplies in combination with micro gas turbine technologies. The emphasis is primarily on the utilization of the waste heat from the turbine in a recuperative process and the possibility of burning biomass even "dirty" fuel by employing a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) to avoid the combustion gases passing through the turbine. In this paper, finite time thermodynamics is employed in the performance analysis of a class of irreversible closed IFGT cycles coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. Based on the derived analytical formulae for the dimensionless power output and efficiency, the efficiency optimization is performed in two aspects. The first is to search the optimum heat conductance distribution corresponding to the efficiency optimization among the hot- and cold-side of the heat reservoirs and the high temperature heat exchangers for a fixed total heat exchanger inventory. The second is to search the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching corresponding to the maximum efficiency between the working fluid and the high-temperature heat reservoir for a fixed ratio of the thermal capacitance rates of the two heat reservoirs. The influences of some design parameters on the optimum heat conductance distribution, the optimum thermal capacitance rate matching and the maximum power output, which include the inlet temperature ratio of the two heat reservoirs, the efficiencies of the compressor and the gas turbine, and the total pressure recovery coefficient, are provided by numerical examples. The power plant configuration under optimized operation condition leads to a smaller size, including the compressor, turbine, two heat reservoirs and the HTHE.

Open access

Zheshu Ma, Dong Yang and Qiang Guo

Conceptual Design and Performance Analysis of an Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery System for a 10000TEU Container Ship

According to operation characteristics of the main engine 9K98ME-C7, a combined turbines-exhaust gas waste heat recovery system is proposed to recover waste heat and increase system energy efficiency. Thermodynamic models based on the first thermodynamic law and the second thermodynamic law are formulated. The superheated steam yield, the total electric power yield, the first thermodynamic law efficiency, the exergy efficiency at different exhaust gas boiler working pressure, and the variation of the exergy efficiency under different feed water temperature and different steam turbine back pressure are analyzed. Thermodynamic results indicate that the most appropriate exhaust gas boiler pressure is 0.8MPa for studied main engine and the total thermal efficiency with combined turbines arrangement has climbed up to 53.8% from 48.5%.

Open access

Zheshu Ma, Hua Chen and Yong Zhang


The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.