Zhen Jiao, Ziyi Wang, Xiudong Wang and Wenjing Fan
The operation parameters for the supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) evaporation method greatly affect the properties of the prepared drug-loaded micelles. In this study, the effects of those key parameters on the drug-loading content (LC) and drug entrapment efficiency (EE) are discussed. It is observed that EE and LC of the micelles are slightly increased with the enhancing temperature and the copolymer molecular ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic segment, while decreased with the enhancing ScCO2 evaporation rate. The pressure and volume ratio of ScCO2 to H2O are observed the optimum condition. In addition, the verification experiment is carried out under the obtained optimizing parameters. The prepared micelles exhibit relatively regular spherical shape and narrow size distribution with the EE and LC value of 70.7% and 14.1%, respectively.
Jiao Li, Si Zheng, Hongyu Kang, Zhen Hou and Qing Qian
In the open science era, it is typical to share project-generated scientific data by depositing it in an open and accessible database. Moreover, scientific publications are preserved in a digital library archive. It is challenging to identify the data usage that is mentioned in literature and associate it with its source. Here, we investigated the data usage of a government-funded cancer genomics project, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), via a full-text literature analysis.
We focused on identifying articles using the TCGA dataset and constructing linkages between the articles and the specific TCGA dataset. First, we collected 5,372 TCGA-related articles from PubMed Central (PMC). Second, we constructed a benchmark set with 25 full-text articles that truly used the TCGA data in their studies, and we summarized the key features of the benchmark set. Third, the key features were applied to the remaining PMC full-text articles that were collected from PMC.
The amount of publications that use TCGA data has increased significantly since 2011, although the TCGA project was launched in 2005. Additionally, we found that the critical areas of focus in the studies that use the TCGA data were glioblastoma multiforme, lung cancer, and breast cancer; meanwhile, data from the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) platform is the most preferable for use.
The current workflow to identify articles that truly used TCGA data is labor-intensive. An automatic method is expected to improve the performance.
This study will help cancer genomics researchers determine the latest advancements in cancer molecular therapy, and it will promote data sharing and data-intensive scientific discovery.
Few studies have been conducted to investigate data usage by government-funded projects/programs since their launch. In this preliminary study, we extracted articles that use TCGA data from PMC, and we created a link between the full-text articles and the source data.
Zhen Ye, Min Zhao, He Jiao, Yang Feng, Ying-zi Li, Cui-fang Nie, Yan-mei Zhang, Bo Zhang, Shu-Lian Zhao, Zheng-hua Zhao and Guang-ju Meng
Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of telbivudine and entecavir on patients with chronic hepatitis B by meta-analysis method.
Methods Databases including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and HighWire were searched from January 2008 to October 2012. Randomized controlled trials on treatment of chronic hepatitis B with telbivudine and entecavir were included. According to the Cochrane systematic reviews, the methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated and effective data was extracted from these studies and analyzed.
Results Six studies were included eventually. The telbivudine group included 417 cases and the entecavir group included 396 cases. For 12-week antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B, the rate of undetectable HBV DNA was 39.1% with telbivudine and 38.6% with entecavir [OR = 1.04, 95% CI (0.62, 1.73), P > 0.05]; for treatment of HBeAg (+) hepatitis B, the HBeAg clearance rate was 23.8% with telbivudine and 3.8% with entecavir [OR= 8.07, 95% CI (2.69, 24.21), P < 0.05], and the HBeAg seroconversion rate was 6.7% with telbivudine and 3.8% with entecavir [OR = 4.95, 95% CI (1.60, 15.31), P < 0.05]; the ALT normalization rate was 54.3% with telbivudine and 58.5% with entecavir [OR = 0.84, 95% CI (0.49, 1.45), P > 0.05]; and for early-stage treatment, the incidence of adverse events was 17.2% with telbivudine and 22.0% with entecavir [OR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.33, 1.32), P > 0.05]. For 1-year antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B, the rate of undetectable HBV DNA was 79.4% with telbivudine and 89.7% with entecavir [OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.28, 0.74), P < 0.05]; for treatment of HBeAg (+) hepatitis B, the HBeAg clearance rate was 28.9% with telbivudine and 15.6% with entecavir [OR = 2.21, 95% CI (1.06, 4.58), P < 0.05], and the HBeAg seroconversion rate was 31.2% with telbivudine and 18.5% with entecavir [OR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.23, 4.31), P < 0.05]; the ALT normalization rate was 85.8% with telbivudine and 84.9% with entecavir [OR = 0.90, 95% CI (0.29, 2.84), P > 0.05]; and the resistance rate was 6.0% with telbivudine and 0.76% with entecavir [OR = 5.71, 95% CI (1.67, 19.47), P < 0.05].
Conclusions For 1-year treatment of chronic hepatitis B, the difference in ALT normalization between telbivudine and entecavir was not statistically significant; and telbivudine was superior over entecavir in terms of HBeAg undetectable and HBeAg seroconversion; entecavir was superior over telbivudine in terms of HBV DNA undetectable and resistance; and both drugs had similar rates of adverse events in early-stage treatment and no severe adverse event was noted. Both telbivudine and entecavir are effective antiviral drugs against hepatitis B.