Qin Zhou, Yu-feng Gao, Xiao-miao Zhao, Fa-ming Pan and Xu Li
Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a Chinese Han population.
Methods Total of 501 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 301 controls with selflimiting HBV infection were studied. Three tag SNPs in the IL-4 gene (rs2227284G/T, rs2243283C/G and rs2243288A/G) were genotyped by the Multiplex snapshot technique. The genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and analyzed.
Results The three SNPs showed no significant genotype/allele associations with chronic HBV infection. Overall allele P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.655, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.070 (0.793-1.445); rs2243283, P = 0.849, OR (95% CI) = 0.976 (0.758-1.257); rs2243288, P = 0.659, OR (95% CI) = 1.060 (0.818-1.375). Overall genotype P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.771; rs2243283, P = 0.571; rs2243288, P = 0.902. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with chronic HBV infection and controls. Haplotypes generated by these three SNPs also had no significant differences between the two groups.
Conclusions The three tag SNPs of IL-4 were not associated with the outcome of HBV infection in the Han Chinese population.
Danmu function as an augmented comment feature has been adopted by almost all live streaming platforms to foster interaction between viewers and the streamer in China. However, few studies have been conducted to understand the determinants of users’ Danmu sending behavior on live streaming platforms. This study examines this phenomenon from the lens of effectance theory and the S-O-R framework. We propose that two effectances – Danmu effectance and live streaming effectance – play an essential role in active Danmu participation. In addition, we explore the effects of time-enhanced (synchronicity) and space-enhanced technical characteristic (visibility) of Danmu on live streaming platforms on two effectances. Data analysis of 877 participations from Douyu platform in mainland China indicates that active Danmu participation is positively associated with Danmu effectance and live streaming effectance which are influenced by both time-enhanced technical feature (synchronicity) and space-enhanced technical feature (visibility). In addition, the study finds that demographic characteristics, namely education and income, also affect active Danmu participation.
Yagang Zhang, Guifang Pan, Chenhong Zhang and Yuan Zhao
Wind power, as a new energy generation technology, has been applying widely and growing rapidly, which make it become the main force of renewable energy. However, wind speed sequence has its own character of the intermittent and uncertainty, which brings a great challenge to the safety and stability of the power grid, one of the valid ways solving the problem is improving the wind speed predicting accuracy. Therefore, given atmospheric disturbances, we firstly used empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to deal with the non-linear wind speed sequence, and combined with strong adaptive and self-learning ability of BP neural network, then, a wind speed prediction model, EMD-BP neural network based on Lorenz disturbance, was proposed. Finally, it was to made use of actual wind speed data to take a simulation experiment and explored the improvement effect of the preliminary forecasting sequence of wind speed influenced by Lorenz equation in the transient chaos and chaos. The results show that, the improved model weakened the random fluctuation of wind speed sequence, effectively corrected the wind speed sequences initial prediction values, and made a great improvement for the short-term wind speed prediction precision. This research work will help the power system dispatching department adjust the dispatching plan in time, formulate the wind farm control strategy reasonably, reduce the impact brought by wind power grid connection, increase the wind power penetration rate, and then promote the global energy power market innovation.
Yu-Xi Song, Pan Hu, Yun-Long Bai, Chang Zhao, Cheng Xia and Chuang Xu
Differential metabolites (DMs) between cows with inactive ovaries (IO) and oestrous (E) cows were screened and metabolic pathways of DMs associated with IO were determined.
Material and Methods
Cows at 50 to 60 days (d) postpartum from an intensive dairy farm were randomly selected and allocated into an E group (n = 16) or an IO group (n = 16) according to a pedometer and rectal examinations. Their plasma samples were analysed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) to compare plasma metabolic changes between the E and IO groups. Multivariate pattern recognition was used to screen the DMs in the plasma of IO cows.
Compared with normal E cows, there were abnormalities in 20 metabolites in IO cows, including a significantly decreased content (VIP > 1, P < 0.05) of cholic acid, p-chlorophenylalanine, and arachidonic acid, and a significantly increased content (VIP > 1, P < 0.05) of tyramine, betaine, L-phenylalanine, L-glutamate, D-proline, L-alanine, and L-pyrophosphate. Five DMs (cholic acid, D-proline, L-glutamate, L-alanine, and L-pyroglutamic acid) with higher variable importance in projection (VIP) values between groups were validated by ELISA with blind samples of re-selected cows (IO, 50 to 60 d postpartum) and the validated results were consistent with the LC–MS results.
The 20 DMs in IO cows during the peak of lactation indicated that the pathogenesis of IO was involved in complex metabolic networks and signal transduction pathways. This study provides a basis for further exploration of the pathogenesis and prevention of IO in cows in the future.
Tong Wu, Guanhua Wang, Caihong Shi, Jinghan Li, Na Zhao, Zihao Dong, Weisan Pan and Xiangrong Zhang
The purpose of this study was to prepare a mosapride citrate-resin (Amberlite® IRP 88) complex and orally fast-disintegrating tablets of the resin complex. The resinate complex of mosapride-Amberlite® IRP 88, mass ratio 2:1, was prepared in an ethanol-water solution. The effects of alcohol concentration, temperature, and pH of the solution on complex formation were evaluated. The complex physicochemical properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Orally disintegrating tablets were prepared by direct compression and were optimized using the response surface method. Optimized orally fast-disintegrating tablets disintegrated within 18 s. The pH dependence of mosapride release from the tablet decreased drug dissolution in simulated saliva, whereas it promptly released in the pH 1.0 solution. The data reported herein clearly demonstrate that tablets containing the mosapride-Amberlite® IRP 88 complex for oral disintegration could be particularly useful for patients with swallowing difficulties.
Shen-rong Hu, Yong-tao Huai, Chuan-ying Pan, Chu-zhao Lei, Hong Chen and Xian-yong Lan
Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel) mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance.
Methods Based on bovine PRNP gene sequence, two pairs of primers for testing the 23 bp and 12 bp indel mutations were designed. The PCR amplification and agarose electrophoresis were carried out to distinguish the different genotypes within the mutations. Moreover, based on previous data from other cattle breeds and present genotypic and allelic frequencies of two indels mutations in this study, the corrections between the two indel mutations and BSE susceptibility were tested, as well as the relationships between the mutations and milk performance traits were analyzed in this study based on the statistical analyses.
Results In the analyzed Chinese Holstein population, the frequencies of two “del” alleles in 23 bp and 12 bp indel muations were more frequent. The frequency of haplotype of 23del-12del was higher than those of 23del- 12ins and 23ins-12del. From the estimated r2 and D’ values, two indel polymorphisms were linked strongly in the Holstein population (D’ = 57.5%, r2 = 0.257). Compared with the BSE-affected cattle populations from the reported data, the significant differences of genotypic and allelic frequencies were found among present Holstein and some BSE-affected populations (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Similarly, there were significant frequency distribution differences of genotypes and alleles among Chinese Holstein and several previous reported healthy dairy cattle (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, association of genotype and combined genotypes of two indel polymorphisms with milk performance and resistant mastitis traits were analyzed in Holstein population, but no significant differences were found (P > 0.05).
Conclusions These observations revealed that the influence of two indel mutations within the bovine PRNP gene on BSE depended on the breed and they did not affect the milk production traits, which layed the foundation for future selection of resistant animals, and for improving health conditions for dairy breeding against BSE in China.
Tree height and diameter at breast height of 30 half-sib Larix kaempferi families were analyzed at different ages. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in growth among different families. Phenotypic variation coefficients of the traits tree height and diameter at breast height among families of different ages ranged from 11.04 % to 31.74 % and 19.01 % to 19.83 %, respectively. Average heritability of tree height and diameter at breast height ranged from 0.87 to 0.96 and 0.93 to 0.96, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed among all traits at different ages. By the method of multiple-traits comprehensive, six families (L18, L12, L8, L3, L25 and L20) were selected as being elite using a 20 % selection ratio at 12 years of age. Average values of these elite families were 11.15 % and 16.83 % higher than the total average for height and diameter at breast height, and genetic gains were 10.53 % and 15.79 %, respectively. Forty five elite individual plants were selected using a 5 % selection ratio which were 23.47 % and 24.90 % higher than the overall average for height and diameter at breast height, respectively.
Hong Zang, Dong Ji, Qing Shao, Guang-de Zhou, Deng Pan, Shao-jie Xin, Jing-min Zhao and Guo-feng Chen
Objective The cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) protein plays a regulatory role in the induction of cell death in tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the expression of CAS protein with HBV infection in the development of HCC.
Methods The expression level of CAS was measured with immunohistochemistry. The occurrence of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in HCC were concurrently examined with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively.
Results The results showed that the CAS protein was detected in 86% (43/50), 70% (7/10), 15% (3/20) and none (0/20) of livers from patients with HCC, cholangiocarcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatitis, respectively. Furthermore, the level of CAS protein was higher in poorly differentiated tumors than moderately or well differentiated HCC. Interestingly, the CAS was stained significantly stronger in HBV-infected HCC than in non-HBV infected tissues (P < 0.01).
Conclusions The expression of CAS is facilitated by HBV infection in HCC, suggesting that CAS might be a prognostic marker and a putative therapeutic target for HCC.
Si-An Pan, Dao Zhao, Xiang-Jun Lu, Cheng-Wen Li, Mai-Lan Liu and Xiao-Rong Chang
Objective: To analysis and extract the features of acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea.
Methods: By searching the major Chinese and English databases, we included the clinical literature with defined point-based recipes and analyzed the feature of those.
Results: (1) the most frequently selected points for dysmenorrhea in order were: San Yin Jiao(SP6), Guan Yuan (RN4), Zhong Ji (CV3), Qi Hai (CV6), Ci Liao (BL32), Di Ji (SP8), Shen Shu (BL23). (2) the major characteristics of point selection was combination of local points and distant points which located on Ren meridian and spleen meridian. (3) the major treatment methods were normal acupuncture, then acupuncture combined with moxibustion or auricular therapy, for the latter, were especially stressed and confirmed by many studies.
Conclusion: The acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea were usually made by consideration of combining local and distant points, utilizing multiple methods especially auricular therapy.
Lin Ma, Qiaomei Qin, Qing Yang, Meng Zhang, Haiyu Zhao, Chuanying Pan, Chuzhao Lei, Hong Chen and Xianyong Lan
In the process of anterior pituitary gland development and maturation, numerous transcription factors were involved in the pituitary organogenesis. To date, the lack of knowledge on POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes affecting growth traits was reported in Chinese goat breeds. The objective of this work was to identify genetic variants of the POU1F1, PROP1, PITX1 and SIX3 genes, as well as to evaluate their associations with growth traits in goats. The results showed that one novel and five reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were confirmed in above four genes. The novel SNP (NC_019460.2:g.1100T>A) was located in intron 1 of SIX3 gene. Among these loci, DQ826397.1:g.102T>G (SNP1), DQ826397.1:g.279T>C (SNP2) and NC_019460.2:g.1100T>A (SNP6) were associated with growth traits. In details, the SNP1 locus had significant association with hucklebone width (P<0.05) and hucklebone width index (P<0.05) in the Guanzhong dairy goat. The SNP2 locus was associated with body weight (P<0.05), chest circumference (P<0.01), chest width (P<0.05), hucklebone width (P<0.05), cannon circumference (P<0.01) and trunk index (P<0.01) in the Hainan black goat. The SNP6 locus was significantly associated with hucklebone width index (P<0.05) and chest width (P<0.05) in the Guanzhong dairy goat and Hainan black goat, respectively. These findings indicated that goat POU1F1-PROP1-PITX1-SIX3 pathway genes were important genetic factors, which could affect growth traits. Three SNPs detected in this study may be useful for potential marker-assisted selection programs in goat breeding and production.