Geodiversity map of the Tatra National Park for geotourism
The paper indicates the relations between geodiversity and geotourism in the Tatra National Park. Geodiversity of the Tatra Mountains is visualized by its geodiversity map, whereas geotouristic attractions are measured by touristic attractions along touristic trails on geodiversity map. Areas of the highest geodiversity cover merely 8.2% of the Tatar National Park area. These are mainly areas close to the Tatra Mountains' main ridge. It is so due to geology, landform energy, slopes, landform fragmentation and geoecological belts. Most of the analyzed thematic layers categorizes ridges as more geodiversed than valley areas. The trails situated in the valley bottoms usually cross by areas of low geodiversity, however, from geotouristic point of view, it should be noted that slopes and ridges circumvolving the valley can be marked by high geodiversity. The mountain slopes and ridges are within tourist's sight, what increases trail's geotouristic attractiveness. Amongst many geotouristically interesting parts of the Tatra Mountains Dolina Pięciu Stawów valley appears to be the most appealing with its high quantity and high variety of post-glacial forms on valley's bottom as well as on its slopes.
Located in north-western Poland, the Bukowska Forest and Goleniowska Forest are vast woodlands consisting of areas with a homogeneous species composition that have been scarcely affected by humans. In this respect, they provided an excellent subject for scientific research, the purpose of which was to determine quantitative differences in selected vegetation indices of pine and beech stands in various periods during their vegetation seasons. Another purpose was to characterize the variation in these indices for each stand in its vegetation season. Four Landsat 5 TM images taken in 2007 and 2010 at four different points of vegetation season provided the basis for the analysis. In the analysis, 19 wooded areas with a homogeneous species composition were tested. In Bukowska Forest, the tested area was a beech stand, and in Goleniowska Forest, it was a pine stand. Acquired data was used to calculate the following vegetation indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Green NDVI), Normalized Difference Greenness Index (NDGI) and Normalized Difference Index (NDI). Subsequent research allowed to establish that the beech and pine stands differed significantly with respect to their calculated vegetation indices. These differences derived both from the biochemical and structural attributes of leaves and needles, as well as from transformations that occur in the stands during vegetation seasons. Analysis of the indices’ allowed us to determine these differences and the influence of the stands’ phenological phases on the indices.
Geo-questionnaires have been used in a variety of domains to collect public preferences, behavioural patterns, and spatially-explicit local knowledge, for academic research and environmental and urban planning. This paper provides an overview of the method focusing on the methodical characteristics of geo-questionnaires including software functions, types of collected data, and techniques of data analysis. The paper also discusses broader methodical issues related to the practice of deploying geo-questionnaires such as respondent selection and recruitment, representativeness, and data quality. The discussion of methodical issues is followed by an overview of the recent examples of geo-questionnaire applications in Poland, and the discussion of socio-technical aspects of geo-questionnaire use in spatial planning.
The paper presents a review of contributions to the scientific discussion on modern methods and tools for public participation in urban planning. This discussion took place in Obrzycko near Poznań, Poland. The meeting was designed to allow for an ample discussion on the themes of public participatory geographic information systems, participatory geographic information systems, volunteered geographic information, citizen science, Geoweb, geographical information and communication technology, Geo-Citizen participation, geo-questionnaire, geo-discussion, GeoParticipation, Geodesign, Big Data and urban planning. Participants in the discussion were scholars from Austria, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, the United Kingdom, and the USA. A review of public participation in urban planning shows new developments in concepts and methods rooted in geography, landscape architecture, psychology, and sociology, accompanied by progress in geoinformation and communication technologies. The discussions emphasized that it is extremely important to state the conditions of symmetric cooperation between city authorities, urban planners and public participation representatives, social organizations, as well as residents.
The preparation of a proper zoning plan or landscape-ecological plan requires taking into account recognition of the natural values of an area covered by the plan and evaluating its abiotic and biotic diversities. The aim of the paper is to present the new approach to the procedure of geodiversity and biodiversity assessment. This procedure is used to characterise abiotic and biotic heterogeneity of the postglacial landscape modified by a man, tested on Dębnica River catchment (Western Pomerania, Poland). This catchment is a representative example illustrating the landscape of Central European Plain. The analytical algorithm of the geodiversity assessment is based on appropriate selection of the evaluation criteria: lithological, relative heights, landform fragmentation, hydrographical elements and mesoclimatic conditions. Biodiversity was assessed on the basis of real vegetation, potential natural vegetation and the degree of anthropisation of the natural vegetation with respect to syngenesis of plant associations. Seven factor maps were obtained: five for the diversity of abiotic elements, and two for the diversity of biotic elements, which became the basis for the creation of total geodiversity and biodiversity maps. Maps produced in accordance with given methodology may find a wide range of applications.
Poznań, a city in central-western Poland, is located in the lowland region but has no less attractive geomorphological and human history. It was here that Poland was born at the end of the tenth century. The city’s location is connected with the meridian course of the Warta River valley. In contrast, in the northern part of the city, there is a vast area of the frontal moraines of the Poznań Phase of the Weichselian Glaciation. Against the backdrop of the geomorphological development of the city, the article presents the existing geosites, classified as urban geosites. The present geosites include three lapidaries with Scandinavian postglacial erratics, one of them also with stoneware, a fragment of a frontal push moraine and impact craters. Besides, three locations of proposed geosites with rich geomorphological and/or human history were identified. These are as follows: the peat bog located in the northern part of the city, defence ramparts as exhumed anthropogenic forms, and the Warta River valley. The existing and proposed geosites in Poznań were evaluated in three ways. In general, it should be assumed that the proposed new geosites are higher ranked than the current ones.
This work presents two different strategies of ABM for management of selected lakeland landscapes and their impact on sustainable development. Two different lakeland research areas as well as two different sets of agents and their decision rules were compared. In Strategy 1 decisions made by farmers and their influence on the land use/cover pattern as well as the indirect consequence of phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the water bodies were investigated. In this strategy, a group of farmer agents is encouraged to participate in an agri-environmental program. The Strategy 2 combines the decisions of farmers, foresters and local authorities. The agents in the model share a common goal to produce a spatial plan. The land use/cover patterns arising from different attitudes and decision rules of the involved actors were investigated. As the basic spatial unit, the first strategy employed a landscape unit, i.e. lake catchment whereas the second strategy used an administrative unit, i.e. commune. Both strategies resulted in different land use/cover patterns and changes, which were evaluated in terms of sustainability policy. The main conclusion for Strategy 1 is that during 5 years of farmer’s participation in the agri-environmental program, there was significant decrease of nutrient leaching to the lake. The main conclusion for Strategy 2 should be stated that cooperating of the agents is better for the natural environment than the competitions between them. In both strategies, agents’ decisions influence the environment but different spatial units of analysis express this environment.