Local roads (district and municipal) play an important role in the road network, especially in rural areas. In recent years, these roads have been largely repaired, which was often associated with the construction of new infrastructure. One of the basic conditions of maintaining the quality of road works is the proper construction or renewal of drainage devices. Errors in this area result in lower durability of the road pavement. It is equally important to maintain these devices later in a good technical condition, which requires spending appropriate funds from local government budgets. The aim of the study presented in the article was to determine the current technical condition of drainage of local roads in the Czestochowa region and to identify the most frequent design and implementation errors, resulting in a rapid loss of functionality of drainage devices. They were based mainly on in situ studies carried out in the area of an exemplary rural municipality. Errors resulting in the lack of continuity of drainage, or the danger of a rapid loss of its functionality are shown with real examples. It was found that despite the shortcomings described, in recent years the technical condition of drainage of local roads has improved, which is related to the systematic overhaul of local roads (including the construction of sidewalks) and the local government's perception of the importance of road drainage problem.
Continuous increase of expectations concerning improvement in quality of building partitions by means of increasing their thermal insulation properties brings, among others, a need of modification in standards that have been applied to the double glazed windows so far. Triple-glazed and quadruple-glazed IGUs are used more and more often. Such elements have better thermal properties, but they are more prone to deflection and stress resulting from climatic load, i.e. changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind load. Due to the above certain concepts occurred that consist in equalising gas pressure in the gas-filled gaps with the atmospheric pressure. The article contains assessment of such solutions in the context of providing suitable technical parameters of glass panes: thermal insulation and susceptibility to climatic load. It was stated that the pressure-equalizing elements (capillaries) can result in a significant reduction in the quality of the glass partition in the event of the argon purging chamber or damage to the low-E emissions. The lower risk of using required thermal properties occurs when periodically active valves are used, they operate only in case of extreme pressure level differences. Further analysis concerned the idea of pressure equalisation between the gaps of a triple-glazed unit, as that can be done by using an edge spacer of appropriate design. On the basis of comparative analysis of static values it was shown that it is a reasonable solution. Such a unit maintains the properties of a tight unit, while the possibility of gas exchange between the gaps leads to relief of the central glass pane in the unit, thus allowing for decreasing its thickness to 2 mm.
Recent years have shown increased interest in the use of glass structures in the construction industry. Investors value qualities such as aesthetics and the good environmental resistance of glass. It has become commonplace to use glass not only to construct façades, but also in horizontal partitions (floors, building coverings
) and in such elements as protective canopies, passageway screens or fire barriers. Such extensive use of this building material has been made possible by the development of technology for manufacturing glass with improved strength properties, in particular, toughened and laminated glass. However, glass has some disadvantages as a building material – first of all, low tensile strength, impact strength and point load compressive strength. The use of glass with improved strength properties minimises these defects to a considerable extent. Nevertheless, it sometimes happens that glass structures crack or lose their aesthetic value. This results from errors made during the design stage as well as during the construction work on the structure. Based on an “in situ” study and the literature on the subject, the article identifies risks associated with the use of glass elements, in addition to analysing their causes and possible effects. Examples of real elements in the course of their use are provided in order to illustrate the factors under analysis. Moreover, the article includes recommendations linked to the safe usage of glass in the structure when discussed against the background of assembly errors.
The article presents technical aspects of maintenance of proper condition of drainage devices of public roads, and municipal and district roads in particular. The importance of road drainage is discussed, basic surface drainage devices discussed together with their location within the road. With use of actual examples we indicated the typical errors made during repairs and overhauls of the road, that have the consequence of disrupted continuity of drainage or the risk of quick loss of functions of drainage devices. The results of survey of technical condition of roadsides and the drainage device within a selected rural municipality were presented, indicating main problems of road keepers connected with keeping the drainage infrastructure in appropriate condition. The need of growing awareness in planning and designing road investment was indicated in the field of consequences of performing insufficient drainage.
Katarzyna Więckowska, Lech Dudarewicz, Hanna Moczulska, Maciej Słodki, Zbigniew Pietrzak and Maria Respondek-Liberska
The primary aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of prenatal ultrasound and echocardiography for prognosis in congenital heart disease (CHD) with coexisting diaphragmatic hernia (DH) in a tertiary care center. Eleven records from the database of the Department for Diagnoses and Prevention of Congenital Malformations, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute, were reviewed. The mean maternal age was 29,2 ± 5,1 years, and the mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 28,4 ± 6,7 weeks. No information was available for children discharged from hospital. Data of eight cases of prenatal DH and complex heart disease from the literature were also analyzed. Three fetuses survived the neonatal period. In each of these, CHD was other than the urgent or critical type, defined as not requiring cardiac surgical intervention in the first day or month of life. Both sets of data collected from our center and the published literature confirmed the unfavorable prognosis for fetuses with severe or critical CHD with coexisting DH.