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  • Author: Zbigniew Obmiński x
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Physiological and perceptual responses to three consecutive official matches in female boxer. A case study


Study aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological cost of three consecutive official boxing fights played during a 3-day tournament and two non-contact specific drills against handheld pads of the same time-profile as the contest, 4 × 2 minutes with 1-minute intervals between them. This assessment was based on the determination of selected hormones and metabolites in the blood sampled directly prior to the contests and throughout short-term post-contest recovery.

Material and methods: A female amateur boxer was enrolled on the study during a 3-day Polish Boxing Championship, where one match was played on each day. The timing of capillary blood sampling during each match and the drill was as follows: 10 minutes prior to the effort, and 3 and 30 minutes after its completion. Cortisol (C), testosterone (T), and glucose (G) were determined in the serum, while lactate (LA) was determined in the blood. In addition, prior to each effort, serum creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) was determined. Directly after each effort, the perception of fatigue (PF) was rated.

Results: G, C, and T during official matches were significantly higher than those during non-contact drills. Post-event G, C, T, and LA were higher compared to pre-event values.

Conclusions: An official boxing match produced higher stress than a drill of the same time-profile and similar modality. Changes in blood indices corresponded well with the perception of fatigue.

Open access
The Influence of a 7-Week Preparatory Period on Hormonal and Metabolic Responses in Soccer Players / Metabolic and Hormonal Response to Training


Introduction. The aim of the study is to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal response of soccer players to maximum effort (test for determining anaerobic threshold changes - PPA) carried out under field conditions within a training cycle, which included a preparation period of about 7 weeks. Materials and methods. In blood samples of the 20 subjects the concentrations of lactate was determined, (LA) in whole blood, also including cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and growth hormone (GH) in blood plasma, during a running exercise performed according to the formula for determination of PPA. The heart rate (HR) was recorded during the running exercise. Threshold speed was determined based on OBLA. The tests were carried out twice: at the beginning and at the end of the seventh week preparatory period. Results. The training increased the threshold speed by an average of 0.4 m/s, lower concentrations of LA during the second test and less severe changes in HR. Endurance of the tested athletes increased at more favourable hormonal response with respect to cortisol nd and GH. The endurance component in the training, in the 2nd test resulted in lower resting testosterone levels, which did not affect the metabolic balance. The ratio of testosterone to cortisol (T/C), its growth after the period of training, showed a more stable anabolic-catabolic balance, which justifies the validity of the training assumptions in this period. Conclusions. The study confirmed the usefulness of metabolic-endocrine indicators in the monitoring the physiological response of athletes to exercise, as well as beneficial changes in the process of adaptation of bodies of athletes subjected to training.

Open access
Insights into Supplements with Tribulus Terrestris used by Athletes


Herbal and nutritional supplements are more and more popular in the western population. One of them is an extract of an exotic plant, named Tribulus terrestris (TT). TT is a component of several supplements that are available over-the-counter and widely recommended, generally as enhancers of human vitality. TT is touted as a testosterone booster and remedy for impaired erectile function; therefore, it is targeted at physically active men, including male athletes. Based on the scientific literature describing the results of clinical trials, this review attempted to verify information on marketing TT with particular reference to the needs of athletes. It was found that there are few reliable data on the usefulness of TT in competitive sport. In humans, a TT extract used alone without additional components does not improve androgenic status or physical performance among athletes. The results of a few studies have showed that the combination of TT with other pharmacological components increases testosterone levels, but it was not discovered which components of the mixture contributed to that effect. TT contains several organic compounds including alkaloids and steroidal glycosides, of which pharmacological action in humans is not completely explained. One anti-doping study reported an incident with a TT supplement contaminated by a banned steroid. Toxicological studies regarding TT have been carried out on animals only, however, one accidental poisoning of a man was described. The Australian Institute of Sport does not recommend athletes’ usage of TT. So far, the published data concerning TT do not provide strong evidence for either usefulness or safe usage in sport.

Open access