The Vatican's vision of tourism is based on Christian humanism, integral humanism and personalism. At the very core of the vision are human beings, who are not only the creators of tourism but also its ultimate goal, and for this reason all values of the natural world should be unconditionally subordinated to the good that are people. Consequently, the fundamental goal of tourism is to satisfy the needs of exploration, relaxation, entertainment and, first and foremost, the spiritual and intellectual needs of every person. Tourism has to help build a sense of community. It should also contribute to the elimination of poverty and foster the sense of responsibility for the environment. Tourism must not be exclusive to the rich and it should never be a time of depravity, promiscuity and, consequently, the degradation of people. Tourism should become an opportunity for all people to discover their contemplative dimension, giving them a chance to see God in nature and first of all, in other people.
The sociological outlook on Olympism and sport contained in this paper covered the ideas and notions of sport to a lesser extent than the actual state of affairs, that is, the condition of sport here and now. The sociological description of sport assumed that sport was an element of the modern society and contemporary culture. This perspective allowed the description and analysis of sport in terms which are employed by sociology, or more generally, by social sciences. This means that it was possible to reflect upon sport through paradigms, theories and trends of thought which are effectively used in attempts at sociological descriptions of modern societies.
The critical analysis of Olympism and contemporary sport, presented above, does not assert that Olympism and sport have run out of possibilities for further development. On the contrary, both Olympism and contemporary sport are the hope and the chance that a better future awaits communities, cultures, civilizations and humanity on a global scale. Furthermore, the threats and negative trends which emerge in sport should not remain concealed or underestimated, because they are of an objective character and have an effect on the whole of the humanistic power of sport. One should also realise that all the aforementioned negative phenomena and processes do not result from some kind of degeneration of sport as such, but are caused by general, external tendencies which penetrate sport through economic, financial, axiological, ethical and many other channels.
The more or less clear outline of the future of sport contained in this paper is of an alternative and exclusively probabilistic character. The future development of sport can take three different directions. Firstly, the future may bring out and strengthen all the tendencies which are already present in contemporary sport, such as dehumanisation, commercialisation, visualisation and medialisation. Secondly, there may emerge a global trend to force sport into the idealised frame of the past and make it become what it was after its foundations had been laid during the Hellenistic period, or rather, the way people remember it being. However, such inclinations towards general reconstruction usually emerge after radical developments which, for example, challenge sport as a cultural reality. Thirdly, the postmodernist ideals may be revived in one form or another, and while they will not necessarily alter the structure of sport, they will put the emphasis which results from certain trends and processes on some unspecified areas of sport consumption and the pursuit of maximal sensations and excitement in sport.
No ideals are immune to distortion when subjected to the process of materialisation. Ideals are not realised by perfect and metaphysical beings, but by humans made of flesh and bones and having both good and bad inclinations. Every person is socialised and moulded in a specific cultural and social reality which is never free from deviation and pathology. Similarly, there can be no sport, and that includes the Olympic movement, which could possibly remain an enclave of good and nobleness, a paradise on Earth, with a wall separating it from all the phenomena and processes that take place in contemporary societies. In a way, sport and the Olympic movement are bound to be penetrated by diverse phenomena and trends which have an impact on the spirit and image of sport.
There are no ideal societies nor is there ideal sport, free from deviation and pathology. It is thus totally impossible to accomplish the utopia of the Olympic movement and sport as a land of happy people, uninfluenced by phenomena and processes which are characteristic of modern societies. There can be no world without individuals who breach cultural models, norms and values, no world without deviants and swindlers. Nevertheless, this unattainable utopia has to be pursued, because in the pursuit, people can achieve a lot to improve the axionormative order in sport as well as social life in all its aspects.
Social Aspects of Physical Education and Sport in Schools
The paper entitled Social Aspects of Physical Education and Sport in Schools follows the tradition of social research on physical culture, focusing on the evolution of physical education and sport in schools. The subject is analysed using terms and theories that are characteristic of sociology, most notably the sociology of physical culture, historical sociology and the sociology of culture. Individual subsections look at physical education and sport from the angle of cultures and societies, analysing them in the context of their presence in different schooling systems. Questions of physical education and sport in schools are presented with regards to the following concepts: institutionalisation of education, pre-modern societies, developing modern societies, and developed modern societies. In the closing section, the paper discusses the situation of physical education and sport in schools during the final phase of modern societies, including in Poland.
Sport plays an important role in modern societies, including those in Europe. However, individual countries differ in terms of their citizens’ participation in universally accessible sport. In some societies, the percentage of people who pursue different sports is high, while in other countries it is insignificant. What are the reasons behind such differences? What variables are crucial to accounting for these differences? How has Polish society changed in this regard? Theoretical and empirical analyses show that people in Poland are becoming increasingly active when it comes to sport. In terms of taking part in sport, Polish society is starting to catch up with other European societies. The decisive role in the process is played by: a) social factors (education and affluence), b) the ideals and values that dominate the local culture (physical appearance, kinetic pleasures, and positive emotions), and c) the efficiency and adequacy of the physical education system in schools (innovation, the use of cyberspace, and efforts aimed at addressing social needs). If these three areas of socialization - society, culture and physical education in schools - reach a high level of convergence and if fewer variables hinder the process than at present, people in Poland will become as physically active as other societies in the West.
Introduction. Differences and inequalities connected with the place where a person lives are a subject of interest to social sciences, sociology in particular. Empirical findings indicate that residents of urban and rural areas differ significantly in terms of such variables as physical development, health condition, life expectancy, affluence, education level, access to power, cultural capital and so on. It is interesting to check whether the above regularity also applies to young people's attitudes towards physical culture. The aim of this study was to examine attitudes which middle school pupils (ages between 13 and 16) in Poland's urban and rural areas held to physical culture. Material and methods. The study involved a survey conducted between 10th November 2011 and 10th March 2012 on a purposive sample of 336 children. They were pupils aged 13-16 in two middle schools in Świętokrzyskie province: the Jan Karski no. 4 Middle School in the city of Kielce and the John Paul II Middle School in the village of Masłów, Kielce county. The diagnostic poll method was used in the study and an original, categorised poll was the research tool. The surveying technique was an auditorium questionnaire. Results. After analysis, empirical data obtained from the survey shows that the place of residence causes slights differences in middle school pupils' attitudes towards physical culture. The data allows for the conclusion that pupils from urban areas possess a little better knowledge of physical culture than their peers from rural areas. Pupils from villages have, in turn, a slightly more positive emotional approach to physical culture than pupils in cities. Urban middle school pupils manifest more positive behaviours within physical culture than rural pupils. The place of residence does not cause such striking differences in attitudes to physical culture as it does in other social and cultural variables, such as affluence, education level, access to power, health condition, fitness, participation in culture and so on.