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Open access

Zahra Tazerouni and Ali Asghar Talebi

Abstract

Sipha maydis (Passerini) is a pest of Poaceae in many cereal-growing area of the world and Iran. The effects of temperature on biology and life table were investigated at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 32.5±1°C), 60±5% relative humidity (RH) and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h. The results indicated that aphids failed to complete development at 32.5°C. Developmental time was ranged between 17.28 to 9.55 days at 15 and 30°C, respectively. The lower developmental threshold (T0) and thermal constant of S. maydis were estimated to be –5.52°C and 332.22 degree-days, respectively. The Analytis-3/Briere-1 model (as non linear model) is highly recommended for the description of temperature dependent development of S. maydis. The highest life expectancy of adults at emergence was 33.35 days at 20°C. The mean adult longevity of females and nymphipositional period were the highest at 20°C. The mean lifetime fecundity at 15, 20, 25 and 30°C were 21.24±1.97, 44.82±3.18, 22.25±2.33 and 16.39±1.15 nymphs/female, respectively. The survivorship curves of S. maydis were type I at 20 and 25°C (H < 0.5) and type III at 15 and 30°C (H > 0.5). The highest and lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were observed at 20 (0.173±0.012 females/female/day) and 15°C (0.109±0.003 females/female/ /day), respectively. The growth index (GI) at 15, 20, 25 and 30°C were 0.033, 0.069, 0.062 and 0.038, respectively. According to this research the optimum temperature for population growth of S. maydis was 20°C. Our findings provide fundamental information and when this information is used in association with other ecological data, it may be valuable in development and implementation of management programs of S. maydis.

Open access

Zahra Abedi, Moosa Saber, Gholamhossein Gharekhani, Ali Mehrvar and Vahid Mahdavi

Effects of Azadirachtin, Cypermethrin, Methoxyfenozide and Pyridalil on Functional Response of Habrobracon Hebetor Say (HYM.: Braconidae)

Habrobracon hebetor Say is one of the most important natural enemies of the Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lep.: Noctuidae). In this study, the sublethal effects of LC30 concentration of azadirachtin, cypermethrin, methoxyfenozide and pyridalil on the functional response of H. hebetor to different densities of 5th instars larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller were evaluated. Young females were exposed to LC30 of the insecticides for an appropriate time of exposure. Then, six randomly selected alive females were transferred individually to plastic Petri dishes (10 cm in diameter) and supplied with the following densities: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 of 5th instars of E. kuehniella for 24 h. Eight replicates were considered for each insecticide treatment and the control. The results revealed a type II functional response in the control, and all of the insecticide treatments. This study showed that the control and the cypermethrin treatment had the shortest (0.4143 h) and longest (0.624 h) handling time, respectively. The highest (0.0035 per hour) and lowest (0.0029 per hour) attack rate was observed in pyridalil and cypermethrin treatments, respectively. Based on values of handling time, cypermethrin had the highest adverse effect on host-finding in H. hebetor.

Open access

Zahra Ghahremanzadeh, Javid Imanpour Namin, Ali Bani and Ali Hallajian

Abstract

The size and number of chloride cells and serum ion concentrations in kutum, Rutillus frisii kutum Nordman, from brackish (Caspian Sea) and fresh water (Khoshkrood River) environments were studied to gain a better understanding of osmoregulation in this species. Twenty mature kutum specimens were collected from the Caspian Sea (Anzali coasts, 8.49 ppt salinity and 12.4°C temperature) and 20 specimens from Khoshkrood River (0.18 ppt salinity and 18°C temperature). Gill samples were analyzed histologically and concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions were determined in the blood serum. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- , K+, and Mg2+ ions and osmotic pressure in mature kutum from brackish water were significantly higher than in specimens from fresh water. The average size and number of chloride cells in the fish from seawater were considerably larger than those from fresh water. The mean size of chloride cells was 6.89 ± 1.16 μm in brackish water samples and 5.1 ± 0.81 μm in river samples. The average number of chloride cells in brackish and river water samples were 16.92 and 6.57, respectively. The density and size of chloride cells increased with increases in salinity

Open access

Zahra Khoshnood, Mehdi Ghobeitihasab and Ali Hajinajaf

Abstract

Data records since from 2008 to 2012 show the occurrence of the coral reef bleaching, an increase in population of jellyfish and a decreasing presence of some migratory marine mammals in the Persian Gulf has increased. Results of our biometric methods on jellyfish of the Persian Gulf (Aurelia aurata), show a significant increase in size during the last four years (p < 0.05). Our studies in the area showed that in the sampling areas in close proximity to superhot wastewater of industries cooled in terrestrial pools and then emptied into the sea, the abundance of the Aurelia aurata was significantly lower than in regions where superhot water was directly emptied into the seawater. This paper will review the effects of global warming, especially in the Persian Gulf.

Open access

Zahra Heidari, Ali Moghtaderi, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb and Enam Alhagh Charkhat Gorgich

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder. A tetrad of bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability are the core features of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate stereological changes in the brain of patients with PD and compare them with that of healthy controls. This case-control study was conducted on 29 patients with PD and 12 controls (C) in Zahedan, Iran. All subjects enrolled into the study through the convenience sampling method. MRI images of the brains of two groups in frontal and sagittal axis with consecutive 5mm distance slices were captured. Parameters including total volume (V) and volume density (Vv) of different parts of the brain were estimated based on Cavalries’ point counting stereological method. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U-Test applied for comparing the PD and C groups were used. Significance level was set at p<0.05. Our study showed that the volume of the brain and total volume and volume density (Vv) of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, ventricles, hippocampus, pons, mid brain and superior cerebellar peduncles in the PD group did not indicate significant difference from the control group. Total volume of brain stem in PD group wasn’t significantly different from the control group. The volume density of brain stem (p= 0.012) and total volume and volume density of middle cerebellar peduncle (p< 0.0001) in PD group were significantly larger than the control group. This study shows that PD stereological parameters related to volume and volume density of middle cerebellar peduncle and volume density of brain stem were significantly larger in patients compared to the controls. Therefore, stereological parameters can be used for early diagnosis and probably for follow-up in patients with PD.

Open access

Zahra Fathi, Ramazan-Ali Khavari Nejad, Homa Mahmoodzadeh and Taher Nejad Satari

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes act as regulators of plant germination and growth and are able to change the morphology and physiology of plant cells. The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is a very important medicinal plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 10 different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100, 125, 250 and 500 μg · ml−1) alongside the control under laboratory conditions on the germination and growth of castor seedlings. The results demonstrated that the maximum percentage of germination (96.7%) and relative germination percentage (100%) were found in the concentrations of 50 and 100 μg · ml−1, respectively, and the highest germination rate (53.3%) and the mean germination time (4.6 days) was seen in the concentration of 75 μg · ml−1. However, no statistically significant differences were found between the different concentrations in any of the germination factors. In the concentration of 100 μg · ml−1, there was a significant increase in the seedling vigor index I (400) when compared with the concentrations of 5 and 10 μg · ml−1. The maximum seedling vigor index II (11.3) was found in the concentration of 100 μg · ml−1 and was significantly different from the control and all applied concentrations. The length of radicle in the 100 and 125 μg · ml−1 had a significant increase when compared with the control and the concentrations of 10 and 50 μg · ml−1. The maximum seedling length (4.6 cm) was seen in the concentration of 100 μg · ml−1 where there was a significant increase with 10 μg · ml−1. Moreover, in the 100 μg · ml−1 concentration, the largest number of rootlets (8.6) was seen and when compared with the control and concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 μg · ml−1, there was a statistically significant increase. The maximum wet weight (0.3 g) and dry weight (0.1 g) of seedlings were obtained in the concentration of 100 μg · ml−1 and when compared with the control, there was a significant increase. It was found that in all factors related to the growth of seedlings, the concentrations of 10 and 50 MWCNTs had an inhibitory effect on the response index. The MWCNTs concentration of 100 μg · ml−1 was considered as the optimum concentration in the growth stage of castor seedlings.

Open access

Rozita Kabiri, Ali Hatami, Hakimeh Oloumi, Mehdi Naghizadeh, Fatemeh Nasibi and Zahra Tahmasebi

Abstract

Melatonin, as an indoleamine molecule, regulates a wide range of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis and response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this research, the effect of exogenous application of melatonin (0 (distilled water), 50, 100 and 150 µM) to the leaves of Moldavian balm plants grown under different levels of drought stress (100% (control), 80%, 60% and 40% of field water capacity) was investigated. The results indicate that plants which were treated with 100 µM melatonin showed the greatest leaf surface area, lateral branching, flower length and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase). Foliar application of 100 µM melatonin had no significant difference in catalase activity in comparison with the control and other concentrations of melatonin under normal, moderate and severe drought stress conditions. The lowest H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation (electrolyte leakage, concentrations of malondialdehyde and other aldehydes) were obtained at the concentration of 100 µM melatonin under severe drought stress. This concentration also significantly increased the chlorophyll content and enhanced the relative water content; however, foliar application of 100 µM melatonin had no significant effect on leaf length and proline content compared with the control under normal and stress conditions. The obtained results suggested that foliar application of 100 µM melatonin was more effective than the concentrations of 50 and 150 µM melatonin in reducing the adverse effects of moderate and severe drought stress.

Open access

Majid Zarrin, Zahra Salehi and Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi

Abstract

Background

Dermatophytosis is a superficial infection caused by filamentous fungi belonging to the following three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton. Arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive procedure for the diagnosis of the fungal species.

Objectives

To identify various dermatophyte species as rapidly and precisely as possible.

Methods

Fifty-two clinical dermatophyte isolates from ten species were recovered from samples obtained the Department of Medical Mycology and patients in different parts of Iran. All 52 dermatophyte isolates tested belonged to any of Trichophyton, Microsporum, or Epidermophyton genera. Four random primers, OPAA11, OPU15, OPAA17, and OPD18, were used in this study.

Results

The results indicated that all 10 dermatophyte species displayed distinct DNA band patterns after amplification with the random primers OPAA11 and OPU15. Nine species of dermatophytes were distinguished with the random primer OPAA17 using a different DNA band pattern. AP-PCR amplified different PCR products using primer OPD18.

Conclusions

AP-PCR offers a convenient solution to the problems encountered in the recognition of morphological features of dermatophyte species in comparison with conventional morphological methods. This approach represents technological progress in identification of dermatophytosis.

Open access

Zahra Nemati Lafmejani, Ali Ashraf Jafari, Pejhman Moradi and Alireza Ladan Moghadam

Summary

Introduction: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), a member of Lamiaceae family, is an important medicinal plant that has many useful properties. Copper is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and metabolism.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles on morpho-physiological traits and essential oil composition of peppermint.

Methods: Seven treatments of copper sulphate and copper nanoparticles in three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/l) and control were applied in foliar application three times of the interval of 15 days up to flowering stages of peppermint in Karaj, Iran in 2015.

Results: Copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) increased chlorophyll content and essential oil percentage of 35% and 20% higher than control, respectively. The copper sulfate (0.5 g/l) increased dry matter yield up to 58% higher than control. The effects of treatments were significant on 17 out of 34 compositions. Copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) increased menthol, menthone and menthofuran content up to 15, 25 and 65% higher than in control, respectively.

Conclusions: Foliar application of copper sulfate (0.5 g/l) and copper nanoparticles (1.0 g/l) in flowering stage were suggested for increase of dry matter production, essential oil content and composition, respectively.

Open access

Muhammad Adnan, Fakhar Imam, Iffat Shabbir, Zahra Ali and Tayyaba Rahat

Abstract

Background

Rapid blood glucose estimation is required to prescribe treatments and to make dose adjustments in diabetic patients. However, measuring plasma glucose levels is time consuming. Therefore, the use of glucometers has greatly increased.

Objectives

To measure the correlation between capillary and venous blood glucose levels.

Methods

Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the present study and informed written consent was obtained from all participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical information was noted. Capillary and venous glucose levels were determined. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for data analysis.

Results

Mean age of patients was 52 ± 12 years. It included 29% men; 71% women; 9% smokers; and 90% poor. Mean venous glucose was 11.73 ± 4.64 mmol/L and mean capillary glucose 12.57 ± 5.21 mmol/L. These findings demonstrated a significant intermethod mean difference of 0.84 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Inter-glucose difference was not significant at glucose levels near normal. However, it increased gradually with rise in glucose measurements and was significant at elevated glucose levels. Both concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated positive correlation and more consistency between glucose estimations. A Bland and Altman plot presented excellent agreement between glucometrically and photometrically determined glucose levels.

Conclusion

A positive correlation coefficient showed strong association between capillary and venous glucose measurements.