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Yasir Ahmad, Umer Ali, Muhammad bilal, Sohail Zafar and Zohaib Zahid

Abstract

In this paper, we study 3–total edge product cordial (3–TEPC) labeling which is a variant of edge product cordial labeling. We discuss Web, Helm, Ladder and Gear graphs in this context of 3–TEPC labeling. We also discuss 3–TEPC labeling of some particular examples with corona graph.

Open access

Zeeshan Fareed, Zahid Ali, Farrukh Shahzad, Muhammad Imran Nazir and Assad Ullah

Abstract

The study examines the impact of key determinants of profitability of power and energy sector in Pakistan such as firm size, firm age, firm growth, productivity, financial leverage and electricity crisis discussed in the broader inter-disciplinary literature. For this purpose panel data of 16 firms of power and energy sector is taken for 2001 to 2012. The study considers profitability determinants at the firm as well as industry affiliation levels in examining hypotheses developed from resource-based approaches. Random effect model is used to detect the combination of variables that best estimated the impact of the explanatory variables on the dependent variable. The empirical results suggest that firm size, firm growth, and electricity crisis positively impact the profitability. However, firm age, financial leverage and productivity negatively influence the firm profitability. This study also propose that during the electricity crisis the profitability of power sector is increased even production of this sector is very low. The findings further indicate that larger and younger firms with high growth and low productivity are more likely to be profitable. This study has found that firm productivity and firm size are the strongest determinants of profitability in power and energy sector of Pakistan.

Open access

Analysis of Some Inner Factors Affecting the Lending Rate and Commercial Bank Behavior

(An Empirical Study Based on the Commercial Banking Sector of Pakistan)

Zulfiqar Ali, Zahid Bashir, Muhammad Usman Arshad, Ahmed Ghazali, Muhammad Asif and Fahad Najeeb Khan

Abstract

This research study aims to investigate the potential inner factors of the lending rate in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, seven bank-specific explanatory variables (capital adequacy, management efficiency, liquidity, asset quality, investment to asset, loan to asset and deposit to asset ratios) were selected to determine their impact on lending behavior. Panel data techniques were emplyed on secondary data collected from the annual financial reports from a sample of ninteen major commercial banks over a period of 2007 to 2014. For the purpose of analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and panel data techniques for regression analysis such as the fixed effect regression models were considered after conforming to the Hausman specification (1978) test. The findings of this study revealed that only four out of seven explanatory variables (ratio of investment to total assets, deposit to asset, loan to asset and liquidity ratio) have a significant relationship with lending rate. Two of the significant determinants (liquidity ratio and investment to asset ratio) are positively correlated while the remaining two significant explanatory variables (loan to asset ratio and deposit to asset ratio) are found negatively correlated with lending rate. The findings of the study are applicable to the banking sector of Pakistan. The current study ignored the use of macro factors like GDP and inflation, etc. which could be used in future research.