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Open access

Z. Gronostajski, M. Hawryluk, M. Kaszuba, A. Niechajowicz, S. Polak, S. Walczak and D. Jabłoński

Die Profile Optimization for Forging Constant Velocity Joint Casings

This paper presents the results of a search for an optimal shape of the die for forging CVJ (constant velocity joint) casings. The aim of the optimization was to increase tool life by reducing the pressures acting on the die. Therefore the minimization of the forging force was adopted as the optimization criterion. In order to verify the optimization results, the graphs of the calculated forging forces were compared with the real forging force registered by a dedicated measuring & archiving system.

Then new dies with the optimal shape obtained from the numerical modelling were made and used in the industrial forging process. It was found that the maximum forging force values for the optimized dies were by about 10-15% lower than the ones for the dies with the original shape, which indicates an increase in die durability.

Open access

W. Buczkowski, A. Szymczak-Graczyk and Z. Walczak

Abstract

The article presents the results of validation of static calculations carried out for a monolithic rectangular tank with walls of trapezoidal cross-section. Static calculations were made with the use of software based on the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM) in terms of energy (including spatial static work of the tank). Validation of the results was conducted on a concrete tank model using an innovative measurement tool, i.e. a coordinate measuring arm with a touch probe.

Open access

A. Bieganowski, B. Witkowska-Walczak, J. Gliñski, Z. Sokołowska, C. Sławiński, M. Brzezińska and T. Włodarczyk

Abstract

The database of Polish arable mineral soils is presented. The database includes a lot of information about the basic properties of soils and their dynamic characteristics. It was elaborated for about 1 000 representative profiles of soils in Poland The database concerns: particle size distribution, organic carbon content, acidity-pH, specific surface area, hydrophobicity - solidliquid contact angle, static and dynamic hydrophysical properties, oxidation-reduction properties and selected biological (microbiological) properties of soils. Knowledge about soil characteristics is indispensable for description, interpretation and prediction of the course of physical, chemical and biological processes, and modelling these processes requires representative data. The utility of simulation and prediction models describing phenomena which take place in the soil-plant-atmosphere system greatly depends on the precision of data concerning characteristics of soil. On the basis of this database, maps of chosen soil properties are constructed. The aim of maps is to provide specialists in agriculture, ecology, and environment protection with an opportunity to gain knowledge of soil properties and their spatial and seasonal variability.