Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author: Z. Owsiak x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Z. Owsiak and P. Czapik

Abstract

Alkali-aggregate reaction is an expansive chemical reaction between the alkalis present in cement paste and minerals contained in aggregates. Mineral admixtures can mitigate the detrimental processes caused by this reaction. One of the minerals that reduce the effects of the alkali-aggregate reaction is natural zeolite. This study attempts to explain the process that takes place in the zone surrounding reactive gravel in the cement mortar made with an addition of natural zeolite. Mortar bar expansion tests were performed and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer was used to observe the paste-aggregate interfacial zone. The results confirmed the influence of the zeolite on the reduction in reactive aggregate-based mortar expansion. The microstructure of the aggregatepaste interfacial region was described and particular sub-zones varying in terms of calcium, sodium, potassium and silicon contents were determined.

Open access

Z. Owsiak, J. Zapała-Sławeta and P. Czapik

Abstract

Damage and defects observed in concrete elements, such as a network of microcracks, popouts and eflorrescence can be caused by a variety of deleterious processes. The causes can include mechanical (overloading), physical (freeze-thaw cycle) or chemical exposure (sulphate corrosion, alkali-aggregate reaction). This paper analyses distress due to alkali-silica reaction, detected in selected concrete structures. The analysed concrete elements exhibited cracking, exudations and surface popouts. Identification of the presence of hydrated sodium-potassiumcalcium silicate gel can be considered the primary symptom suggestive of an alkali-silica reaction attack. Other damage-causing mechanisms can occur simultaneously.

Open access

J. Zapała-Sławeta and Z. Owsiak

Abstract

Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a reaction between amorphous or poorly crystallized siliceous phase, present in aggregates, and sodium and potassium hydroxides in the pore solution of concrete. Chemical admixtures such as lithium compounds are known to have high potential of inhibiting ASR. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lithium nitrate on ASR in mortars containing high reactive opal aggregate over a long period of time. Mortar bar expansion tests were performed and microstructures of mortar bars were observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyser. Results from this study showed that effectiveness of lithium nitrate in mitigating ASR was limited over a long period of time. A larger amount of ASR gel which was formed in the presence of lithium nitrate indicated that the deterioration processes intensify within longer periods of time, which so far has not been observed in literature. Microscopic observation confirmed the presence of alkali-silica gel and delayed ettringite in mortars with lithium nitrate.

Open access

Z. Owsiak, P. Czapik and J. Zapała-Sławeta

Abstract

Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) is one of the major causes of damage in concrete. Potential susceptibility of aggregates to this reaction can be determined using several methods. This study compares gravel alkali reactivity results obtained from different tests conducted on coarse aggregates with complex petrography. The potential for the reactivity in the aggregates was revealed in the chemical test using treatment with sodium hydroxide. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to identify the reactive constituents. The expansion measured in the mortar bars test confirmed that the aggregate was potentially capable of alkali silica reactivity with consequent deleterious effect on concrete.