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L. Tarabova, Z. Makova, E. Piesova, R. Szaboova and Z. Faixova

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract, like the urinary, respiratory, reproductive tracts and the surface of the eye, has large surface areas which are in contact with the exterior environment. The mucosal tissues in the gastrointestinal tract are exposed to large number of exogenous, water or food born microbiota. Therefore, they serve as access routes for different types of bacteria, parasites, viruses, enzymes and toxins. In order to protect the mucosal tissues against pathogens and aggressive enzymes, which are necessary in digestive processes, they are covered by a resident microbial flora and also by a viscoelastic adherent mucous gel layer. The mucus layer acts as the first line of defense against threats and also as a positive environment for beneficial endogenous microbiota adapted for symbiotic living. The quantity and quality of mucus layers varies throughout the gastrointestinal tube and is often changed and disrupted during the occurrence disease. A disturbed mucus layer in the intestine can result in changes in the whole organism, such as: impaired immunity, loss of weight and weak food conversion, which is important, especially in food animals. That is why several researchers have focused on these changes, both in humans and other animals, to find out methods and countermeasures, which will facilitate the best protection for the mucus layer in the intestine. In this review, we describe the composition and function of the mucus layer and mucins in the intestine.

Open access

R. Szabóová, Z. Faixová, Z. Maková and E. Piešová

Abstract

The mucus layer of the intestinal tract plays an important role of forming the front line of innate host defense. Recent studies have suggested that the involvement of feeding natural additives on protection/prevention/promotion of mucus production in the intestinal environment is beneficial. The goblet cells continually produce mucins for the retention of the mucus barrier under physiological conditions, but different factors (e. g. microorganisms, microbial toxins, viruses, cytokines, and enzymes) can have profound effects on the integrity of the intestinal epithelium covered by a protective mucus. The intestinal mucus forms enterocytes covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce by the secreted gel-forming mucins (MUC2). The mucus is organized in a single unattached mucus layer in the small intestine and in two mucus layers (inner, outer) in the colon. The main part of the review evaluates the effects of natural additives/substances supplementation to stimulate increased expression of MUC2 mucin in the intestine of animals.