The forest of Chettaba is of great ecological importance for the Constantine region. It is characterized by a very heterogeneous forest cover, the dominance of forest species (Pinus halepensis and Quercus ilex) and an advanced stage of degradation. Vegetation in this region reflects the climate. The summer is dry and hot while the winter is rainy and cold. Indeed, the combination of rain and temperature directly influences the physiology of the vegetation in this forest. The main objective of this work is to characterize the different responses of Aleppo pine and holm oak seedlings and to specify the biochemical variations under the seasonal effect. Biochemical assays of proline, soluble sugars, total proteins and chlorophyll were quantified in the different organs of two species for each of the years 2018–2019. The results obtained show very significant accumulation of total soluble sugars and proline in holm oak and Aleppo pine leaves compared to stems and roots during the winter season (520 ± 20 and 370 ± 17.98 µmol/mg DM respectively). Contrary to the previous results, the highest total protein levels were recorded during the summer with levels of 0.666 ± 0.116 and 1,626 ± 0.107 mg/g FM. Parallel to the accumulation of these three solutes, a gradual decrease in the chlorophyll pigment content was recorded in winter and summer.