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Open access

A. Geromichalou and Z. Faixová

Abstract

Canine Ehrlichiosis is an important immunosuppressive tick borne disease in dogs. The geographical distribution and transmission is mostly related with Rhipicephalus sanguineus which acts as a vector. There is no predilection of age or sex; all breeds may be infected with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The primary targets are monocytic cells. Platelet disorders and serum protein alterations are the principal hematological and biochemical consequences of infections. Clinical signs are almost non-specific. A definitive diagnosis requires: visualization of morulae within monocytes on cytology, detection of serum antibodies with E. canis, the IFA test, or the PCR. The objective of this study was to present information about haematological and biochemical tests of E. canis infected dogs in Lesvos island in Greece, which is an endemic area.

Open access

L. Tarabova, Z. Makova, E. Piesova, R. Szaboova and Z. Faixova

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract, like the urinary, respiratory, reproductive tracts and the surface of the eye, has large surface areas which are in contact with the exterior environment. The mucosal tissues in the gastrointestinal tract are exposed to large number of exogenous, water or food born microbiota. Therefore, they serve as access routes for different types of bacteria, parasites, viruses, enzymes and toxins. In order to protect the mucosal tissues against pathogens and aggressive enzymes, which are necessary in digestive processes, they are covered by a resident microbial flora and also by a viscoelastic adherent mucous gel layer. The mucus layer acts as the first line of defense against threats and also as a positive environment for beneficial endogenous microbiota adapted for symbiotic living. The quantity and quality of mucus layers varies throughout the gastrointestinal tube and is often changed and disrupted during the occurrence disease. A disturbed mucus layer in the intestine can result in changes in the whole organism, such as: impaired immunity, loss of weight and weak food conversion, which is important, especially in food animals. That is why several researchers have focused on these changes, both in humans and other animals, to find out methods and countermeasures, which will facilitate the best protection for the mucus layer in the intestine. In this review, we describe the composition and function of the mucus layer and mucins in the intestine.

Open access

R. Szabóová, Z. Faixová, Z. Maková and E. Piešová

Abstract

The mucus layer of the intestinal tract plays an important role of forming the front line of innate host defense. Recent studies have suggested that the involvement of feeding natural additives on protection/prevention/promotion of mucus production in the intestinal environment is beneficial. The goblet cells continually produce mucins for the retention of the mucus barrier under physiological conditions, but different factors (e. g. microorganisms, microbial toxins, viruses, cytokines, and enzymes) can have profound effects on the integrity of the intestinal epithelium covered by a protective mucus. The intestinal mucus forms enterocytes covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce by the secreted gel-forming mucins (MUC2). The mucus is organized in a single unattached mucus layer in the small intestine and in two mucus layers (inner, outer) in the colon. The main part of the review evaluates the effects of natural additives/substances supplementation to stimulate increased expression of MUC2 mucin in the intestine of animals.

Open access

T. N Solheim, L. Tarabová and Z. Faixová

Abstract

Equine distal limbs have evolved to have long tendons coupled with strong, tendinous muscles positioned proximally on the leg, thus enabling the horse to achieve highly efficient locomotion. The tradeoff is, that the tendons are left unprotected and prone to injuries, therefore they are often protected by various boots and bandages, which may insulate the limbs and cause hyperthermia in the underlying tendons. The actual mechanism for the degeneration of tendons is currently unknown, but damaging temperature increases due to hysteresis in hardworking horses has been suggested as a possible cause. This study compared the skin temperature of the palmar/ plantar metacarpal/metatarsal regions of the limbs after exercise with various types of boots and bandages - primarily tendon boots, leather boots and fleece bandages. Several horses were measured before and after the completion of a standard exercise test. The boots or bandages were removed immediately after the exercise and the temperature was measured at 3 separate places with A Testo 850i infrared thermometer. The differences in temperature increases between the various kinds of boots were compared. The results showed a significantly higher average temperature increase in horses wearing boots or bandages compared to the bare limb. The fleece bandages seemed to accumulate the highest amount of heat, followed by the tendon boots.

Open access

I. Placha, M. Ryzner, K. Cobanova, Z. Faixova and S. Faix

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the influence of four different concentrations of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) on animal health. A total of 50 laying strain chicks were randomly divided at the day of hatching into five dietary-treatment groups. Control group was given the basal diet (BD), the other four experimental groups contained BD supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g S. officinalis EO/kg diet, respectively. 0.1 g/kg EO increased glutathion peroxidase activity (GPx) in duodenal mucosa, liver and kidney, phagocytic activity in blood (PA), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in duodenal tissue and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plasma and liver. 0.25 g/kg EO increased GPx in liver, total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, PA in blood and TEER in duodenal tissue. Our results demonstrate that lower concentrations of EO improve animals’ health status, and that it is necessary keep in mind the selection of sufficient concentration of EO used as animal feed additive.