The effect of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD) on selected immunological parameters and growth of the larval cysts in mice infected intraperitoneally with Echinococcus multilocularis protoscoleces was observed. ABCD was administered at a dose 10 mg/kg body weight twice a week from week 5 to 10 post infection (p.i.). The Echinococcus infection suppressed the proliferative response of splenic T lymphocytes to nonspecific mitogen concanavalin A throughout almost the whole course of the experiment and ABCD administration did not affect this inhibittion. The increase in the proliferative response of B lymphocytes to lipopolysaccharide was found in infected mice with ABCD treatment from week 6 to 10 p.i. ABCD induced a significant rise of the splenic CD4 T cell subpopulation in infected mice only on week 6 p.i. The CD8 T subpopulation was not influenced by the therapy. The level of serum Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in infected and ABCD treated mice was elevated only at week 8 p.i., while the level of serum Th2 cytokine IL-5 was not influenced by the therapy. The ABCD treatment inhibited the IFN-γ production by splenocytes in vitro from week 6 to 10 p.i. On the contrary, the IL-5 production in vitro was stimulated at weeks 8 and 12 p.i. None antiparasitic effect of ABCD on larval growth was determined.
Results suggest that amphotericin B colloidal dispersion did not affect the inhibited Th1 immune response after parasite infection. On the contrary, ABCD advanced the Th2 immune response development, which allows the progressive growth of the parasite.
The goal of this paper was to study the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri B1/1, B2/1 and B6/1 on the relative expression of selected interleukins (IL-1β, IL-15), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β), and the relative percentage of T lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBCs). The mRNA expression levels of interleukins and MIP-1β of PMBCs were evaluated at 24 h and 48 h post inoculation using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The percentage of T lymphocyte subpopulations in PMBCs was determined by flow cytometry. The group that was administered L. reuteri B1/1 had the most significant stimulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins and MIP-1β, in particular after 24 h. Similarly, we observed a rise in the relative percentage of T cells including CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the groups with L. reuteri B1/1 and L. reuteri B2/1. Overall, L. reuteri B1/1 and L. reuteri B2/1 showed a promising stimulatory effect on the relative expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins, MIP-1β and percentage of T cell subpopulations in vitro. On the flip side, L. reuteri B6/1 did not induce the expression of the IL-1β gene.
Infection with the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis was diagnosed in musk rat (Ondatra zibethicus) in the Slovak Republic. At necropsy, massively enlarged liver with numbers of abscess-like lesions up to 1.5 cm in diameter was found. Histological examination shoved the presence of typical multivesicular cysts with multiple protoscoleces and typical laminated layer. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis. According to our knowledge, this is the first documentation of Echinococcus multilocularis in naturally infected rodent in territory of the Slovak Republic.
The aim of this work is the study of stability and kinetics of hydrolysis of the chosen compounds, derivatives of 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylamino]propyl-4- [(alkoxycarbonyl)amino]benzoates and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenyl)ethylamino] propyl-4-[(alkoxycarbonyl)amino]benzoates with potential ultra-short beta-adrenolytic activity. The studied compounds are different in the position of the substituent on the benzene ring in the side chain as well as in the aromatic ring in position 4 with alkyl- (methyl- to butyl-) carbamate. Thin layer chromatography and UV-area spectrophotometry are used in order to establish the stability of these potential pharmaceuticals. The stability studies of the compounds were examined in acidic and alkaline media, in buffers and due oxidation at room and at elevated temperature chromatographically, and Rf values of incipient products and degradation products were detected. Kinetics of acid and base hydrolysis in various solutions at temperatures 80 °C and 100 °C were examined through UV-area spectrophotometry. Kinetic parameters such as rate constant k, half-life period t1/2 and usable life t90 were determined.
The study examined subpopulations of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, spleen, and jejunum including morphology of that segment in broiler chicken farm after treatment with flubendazole (Flimabend) and natural extract from chestnut wood (Farmatan). A total of 24 forty-day-old Kalimero-Super Master hybrid chickens were divided into 4 groups (n=6): the Fli group received Flimabend per os, 100 mg/g suspension in 1.43 mg of active substance/kg body weight during 7 day of experiment, Far group received Farmatan per os at 0.2 % concentration for 6 hours per day during 5 day (experimental days – from 3 to 7); the Far+Fli group received a combination of doses administered in the same way as for the first two groups; and control –C group with no active substance administration. The results demonstrated mild increase of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, leucocyte common antigen CD45, IgM+ and IgA+ cells in peripheral blood after administration of Flimabend. Similarly, subpopulations of followed lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, IgM+) were increased in the jejunum after application of that drug. On the other hand, administration of Farmatan revealed opposite effect on determined immunocompetent cells what proves anti-inflammatory effect. Morphology of villi was also negatively influenced by administration of Flimabend. Administration of Farmatan suggests also its preventive administration in chickens. This tanin-containing drug as plant natural product may be used due to its antibacterial activity and as promising alternative to conventional drug with possible antihelminthic effect.