Effects of Aging on Feedforward Postural Synergies
We investigated the effects of aging on postural muscles covariate patterns prior to voluntary perturbations. Nine healthy young and nine older subjects were instructed to release a load in a self-paced manner. The results of cross-correlation analyses showed that the average time lag corresponding peak correlation coefficient between trunk flexor and extensor muscles in the older group was significantly shorter, compared to that in the young group. The results of principal component analysis showed that the co-contraction Muscle-modes in the older group were observed more frequently than those in the young group. These results indicate that the older group showed changes in the anticipatory postural muscle co-variation, suggesting the transition from reciprocal to co-activation pattern with aging.
Ground liquefaction and deformation is one of the important causes that damage engineering structures. Chinese current code for seismic design of breakwater is based on the single-level seismic design method as well as code for port and water-way engineering. However, this code can not exactly reflect the seismic performance of breakwater structures which experience different seismic intensities. In this paper, the author used a finite difference software, namely, FLAC3D, to analyze the state and compute seismic responses of breakwater structure. The breakwater foundation’s pore pressure ratio and displacement due to different earthquake have been studied. And the result show that: Smaller earthquakes have little influence on serviceability of the foundation, and severe earthquakes can liquefy some parts of the foundation; In the latter case , obvious changes of pores and foundation displaces can be found. Particularly, when seismic peak acceleration reachs 0.2g, Liquefaction appears in the foundation and mainly concentrated in the upper right side of the structure. In addition, the survey of ultra-hole pressure and displacement values of sand layers of the breakwater, manifests when the ultra pore pressure near 1.0, displacement and overturning structure is relatively large, resulting in varying degrees of damage to the structure. This paper’s research can provide theoretical and designable reference for similar engineering structures
To summarize and evaluate the evidence of guidelines and systematic reviews (SRs) of nonpharmacological interventions for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to support the development of future guidelines and clinical decisions for MCI patients.
Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO), Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNAHL, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database were searched for relevant publications, including guidelines and SRs, from January 2014 to March 2019. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the publications for adherence to the inclusion criteria. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) was used to assess the quality of the guidelines, and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2) was used to assess the quality of SRs. In addition, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to evaluate the quality of outcomes.
Thirty-two articles were retrieved, including 1 guideline and 31 SRs. Fourteen SRs of physical exercise for MCI, six articles describing cognitive interventions, four articles describing acupuncture, and seven articles assessing dietary interventions (including four articles employing a Mediterranean diet, one article using vitamin B supplementation, and two articles assessing the effects of tea, coffee, and caffeine) were included. The quality of the articles was very low for 4 (13%), low for 10 (32%), and moderate for 17 (55%).
Based on the evidence available to date, nonpharmacological interventions may improve the current cognitive function of persons with MCI. In particular, physical exercise, cognitive interventions, and acupuncture exerted promising effects. However, due to the limited number and quality of the included publications, additional high-quality reviews are needed to further confirm.
This model optimizes port hinterland intermodal refrigerated container flows, considering both cost and quality degradation, which is distinctive from the previous literature content in a way that it quantifies the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in different setting temperature on intermodal network planning. The primary contribution of this paper is that the model is beneficial not only to shippers and customers for the novel service design, but also offer, for policy-makers of the government, insights to develop inland transport infrastructures in consideration of intermodal transportation. The majority of models of multimodal system have been established with an objective of cost minimization for normal commodities. As the food quality is possible to be influenced by varying duration time required for the storage and transportation, and transportation accompanied with refrigeration producing more CO2 emission, this paper aims to address cost minimization and quality degradation minimization within the constraint of CO2 footprint. To achieve this aim, we put the quality degradation model in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for intermodal network planning for cold chain. The example of Dalian Port and Yingkou Port offer insight into trade-offs between transportation temperature and transport mode considering CO2 footprint. Furthermore, the model can offer a useful reference for other regions with the demand for different imported food, which requires an uninterrupted cold chain during the transportation and storage.
Venous leg ulceration (VLU) is one of the complications of lower extremity venous reflux and reflux disorder of severe diseases, with many adverse effects on patient’s work and life. Nowadays, more and more patients with VLU accept wound care in community setting. Clinical nurses generally take care of the patients based on their own experiences. Healing in VLU is an incredibly complex process, which puzzles even experts. The majority of general nurses do not have this level of expertise, especially those nurses serving in community. Function is the basis of nursing activities. Patients always show different clinical manifestations and self-care abilities due to various function states, which cannot be reflected completely by the existing nursing practice. How to describe nursing practice standardized in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions and facilitate interdisciplinary communication is another urgent problem. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop an accurate nursing program based on function in chronic venous leg ulcers, which can both satisfy the needs of patients and promote nursing revolution.
This study will use International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health as a framework to choose suitable functions and to filter function classification standards of chronic venous leg ulcers through evidence-based systematic research. Nursing interventions related to VLU are selected based on Nursing Interventions Classification, adding other nursing activities by methods of evidence-based systematic review and clinical observation. Then, nursing interventions and function status are matched through steering committee. Finally, the Delphi survey method is adopted to make nursing program native and scientific.
This study is expected to be very significant and meaningful in using standardized nursing terminology. The nursing program established could better meet the needs of both patients with chronic venous leg ulcers and clinical nurses, promoting the development of wound specialist and standardized nursing language.
COVID-19 is the current public health threat all over the world. Unfortunately, there is no specific prevention and treatment strategy for this disease. We aim to explore the potential role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in this regard through this literature review. As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs’ damage. As interaction of COVID-19 virus spike and ACE2 is essential for virus infection, COVID-19-specific vaccine based on spike protein, small molecule compound interrupting their interaction, human monoclonal antibody based on receptor-binding domain, and recombinant human ACE2 protein (rhuACE2) have aroused the interests of researchers. Meanwhile, ACE2 could catalyze angiotensin II (Ang II) to form angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), thus alleviates the harmful effect of Ang II and amplifies the protection effect of Ang1-7. ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys. ACE2 plays a very important role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. Strategies targeting ACE2 and its ligand, COVID-19 virus spike protein, may provide novel method in the prevention and management of novel coronavirus pneumonia.
Ten mixed-breed female dogs were used in the study. Abdominal wall lifting was performed with a sterilised cotton strip. Four portal sites were used to complete gasless laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (GLOHE) procedures. The proper and suspensor ligament, ovarian pedicle, and broad ligament of the uterus, uterine artery and vein were coagulated using bipolar electrocoagulation. After the uterine body was coagulated and cut, the end of the cervix was ligated with a loop suture. Blood samples were obtained before the surgery, immediately after the procedure, and on 1, 3, and 5 d postoperatively for the determination of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). No significant surgical complications occurred. After gasless laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy, a significantly higher serum IL-6 level was found immediately after the surgery and 1 d postoperatively when compared with the level observed after traditional laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOHE). However, no significant differences were observed in CRP level between GLOHE and LOHE. GLOHE proved to be a safe and feasible procedure in bitches.
Background: The alternative splicing of Bcl-x generates the proapoptotic Bcl-xs protein and the antiapoptotic variant Bcl-xl. Previous studies have demonstrated that some chemotherapeutic agents such as emetine, staurosporine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with ibuprofen significantly altered the ratio of the Bcl-x variants Bcl-xs/Bcl-xl in various cell lines, suggesting Bcl-x splicing might be affected by the exogenous stimuli.
Objective: We investigated the regulative role of imatinib in the alternative pre-mRNA splicing of Bcl-x in K562 cells and the related mechanism.
Methods: Cell proliferation was measured using WST assay kit. Cell apoptosis was assayed using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. RT-PCR and western blot assay was used to analyze the mRNA and protein level of alternative splicing of exon 2 in the Bcl-x gene respectively.
Results: Imatinib regulated the alternative splicing in the Bcl-x gene in the K562 cells. In addition, we found that hydroxyurea, another agent for the therapy of CML, could enhance the effect of imatinib on the ratio of the Bcl-xl/Bcl-xs. Moreover, the induction of alternative splicing was correlated with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Alternatively, pretreatment with calyculin efficiently blocked imatinib-induced alternative splcing in the K562 cells compared with okadaic acid, which showed an important role of PP1 in regulating imatinib-induced splicing.
Conclusion: Imatinib regulates the alternative splicing of Bcl-x in K562 cells, which may be associated with the activation of PP1.
Compared with conventional methods for insulation performance evaluation of power cables, the oscillating wave test system used in partial discharge measurement for power cables has advantages of high integrity, easy operation, low power consumption, and compact size in addition, partial discharge, defect localization, and dielectric loss can be measured simultaneously without any damage to cable insulation. Therefore, the oscillating wave test system has been widely applied for insulation performance evaluation of newly installed as well as fault power cables. However, there is no study so far on the verification method of oscillating wave test system. This paper dealt with the application and verification for cable partial discharge measurement devices based on oscillating wave voltage, which is aimed to verify performances of oscillating wave voltage generator, partial discharge measurement, and partial discharge localization. The proposed verification system is expected to be applied in the admittance testing and regular verification of oscillating wave test system, for the purpose of improving the its accuracy and standardization in partial discharge measurement of power cable.
The objective of this study was to determine the potential value of electrical impedance myography (EIM) for assessing lumbosacral paraspinal muscle (LPM) condition in lower back pain (LBP) patients. Standard methods for assessing the condition of LPMs, such as magnetic resonance imaging, are inconvenient and expensive. One tool that could be useful for this purpose is electrical impedance myography (EIM) a technique that can be performed rapidly at the bedside. After undergoing a screening history and examination, subjects were studied with the mView EIM device (Myolex, Inc, Boston). Bilateral LPMs were measured three times each and the two closest sets of measurements averaged on each side. Data analysis included non-parametric two-group comparisons between healthy subjects and back pain patients, receiver-operating curve analyses, and correlation analyses to age and body mass index. A total of 86 healthy individuals (median age (interquartile range) (IQR), 45.5 years (30.3–56.0 years), 42 men, 44 women) and 47 LBP (median age 51.0 year (39.5–57.5) years, 21 men, 26 women) were enrolled. Median EIM 100kHz phase was lower in the LBP patients (9.3°(IQR 8.4°–10.6°) versus 11.4°(IQR 9.4°–13.0°), p = 0.0007). Significantly increased normalized side-to-side differences were present for all three EIM variables (e.g., median 100 kHz phase 0.15 (IQR 0.07–0.31 in LBP patients versus 0.09 (IQR 0.04–0.17) in healthy individuals). A significant correlation between 100 kHz EIM phase and reactance was found with age (Rspearman=−0.46, P=0.0002 and Rspearman=−0.440, P=0.0003) but not for resistance. This study provides early evidence supporting that EIM has the potential to serve as a useful tool for evaluating the condition of LPMs.