Effects of Aging on Feedforward Postural Synergies
We investigated the effects of aging on postural muscles covariate patterns prior to voluntary perturbations. Nine healthy young and nine older subjects were instructed to release a load in a self-paced manner. The results of cross-correlation analyses showed that the average time lag corresponding peak correlation coefficient between trunk flexor and extensor muscles in the older group was significantly shorter, compared to that in the young group. The results of principal component analysis showed that the co-contraction Muscle-modes in the older group were observed more frequently than those in the young group. These results indicate that the older group showed changes in the anticipatory postural muscle co-variation, suggesting the transition from reciprocal to co-activation pattern with aging.
The present study adopts a corpus-oriented usage-based approach to the grammar of Chinese resultative verbs. Zooming in on a specific class of V-kai constructions, this paper aims to elucidate the effect of frequency in actual usage events on shaping the linguistic representations of resultative verbs. Specifically, it will be argued that while high token frequency results in more lexicalized V-kai complex verbs, high type frequency gives rise to more schematized V-kai constructions. The routinized patterns pertinent to V-kai resultative verbs varying in their extent of specificity and generality accordingly serve as a representative illustration of the continuum between lexicon and grammar that characterizes a usage-based conception of language.
Jie Zhao, Yumei Wang, Gaojie Yun and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Ground liquefaction and deformation is one of the important causes that damage engineering structures. Chinese current code for seismic design of breakwater is based on the single-level seismic design method as well as code for port and water-way engineering. However, this code can not exactly reflect the seismic performance of breakwater structures which experience different seismic intensities. In this paper, the author used a finite difference software, namely, FLAC3D, to analyze the state and compute seismic responses of breakwater structure. The breakwater foundation’s pore pressure ratio and displacement due to different earthquake have been studied. And the result show that: Smaller earthquakes have little influence on serviceability of the foundation, and severe earthquakes can liquefy some parts of the foundation; In the latter case , obvious changes of pores and foundation displaces can be found. Particularly, when seismic peak acceleration reachs 0.2g, Liquefaction appears in the foundation and mainly concentrated in the upper right side of the structure. In addition, the survey of ultra-hole pressure and displacement values of sand layers of the breakwater, manifests when the ultra pore pressure near 1.0, displacement and overturning structure is relatively large, resulting in varying degrees of damage to the structure. This paper’s research can provide theoretical and designable reference for similar engineering structures
Qianli Ma, Wenyuan Wang, Yun Peng and Xiangqun Song
This model optimizes port hinterland intermodal refrigerated container flows, considering both cost and quality degradation, which is distinctive from the previous literature content in a way that it quantifies the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in different setting temperature on intermodal network planning. The primary contribution of this paper is that the model is beneficial not only to shippers and customers for the novel service design, but also offer, for policy-makers of the government, insights to develop inland transport infrastructures in consideration of intermodal transportation. The majority of models of multimodal system have been established with an objective of cost minimization for normal commodities. As the food quality is possible to be influenced by varying duration time required for the storage and transportation, and transportation accompanied with refrigeration producing more CO2 emission, this paper aims to address cost minimization and quality degradation minimization within the constraint of CO2 footprint. To achieve this aim, we put the quality degradation model in a mixed-integer linear programming model used for intermodal network planning for cold chain. The example of Dalian Port and Yingkou Port offer insight into trade-offs between transportation temperature and transport mode considering CO2 footprint. Furthermore, the model can offer a useful reference for other regions with the demand for different imported food, which requires an uninterrupted cold chain during the transportation and storage.
Zi-Meng Li, Ying-Hui Jin, Yun-Yun Wang, Lu Cui, Wei-Jie Gao, Jin-Hua Si and Yan-Hui Liu
To summarize and evaluate the evidence of guidelines and systematic reviews (SRs) of nonpharmacological interventions for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to support the development of future guidelines and clinical decisions for MCI patients.
Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), American Academy of Neurology (AAN), Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO), Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CNAHL, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database were searched for relevant publications, including guidelines and SRs, from January 2014 to March 2019. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the publications for adherence to the inclusion criteria. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) was used to assess the quality of the guidelines, and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR 2) was used to assess the quality of SRs. In addition, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to evaluate the quality of outcomes.
Thirty-two articles were retrieved, including 1 guideline and 31 SRs. Fourteen SRs of physical exercise for MCI, six articles describing cognitive interventions, four articles describing acupuncture, and seven articles assessing dietary interventions (including four articles employing a Mediterranean diet, one article using vitamin B supplementation, and two articles assessing the effects of tea, coffee, and caffeine) were included. The quality of the articles was very low for 4 (13%), low for 10 (32%), and moderate for 17 (55%).
Based on the evidence available to date, nonpharmacological interventions may improve the current cognitive function of persons with MCI. In particular, physical exercise, cognitive interventions, and acupuncture exerted promising effects. However, due to the limited number and quality of the included publications, additional high-quality reviews are needed to further confirm.