The elderly population has proliferated worldwide. The empty-nest family pattern has become predominant among the aging people, and they are more vulnerable to the development of cognitive disorders. However, there is no standardized service in the community nursing care that includes procedures on how to improve the cognitive function of the elderly. Meanwhile, the booming number of empty-nest elderly stimulates the community nurses to assume the responsibility for their care. All of these bring more difficulties and opportunities for community nurses who are dedicated to the prevention of geriatric cognitive disorders.
The authors reviewed the literature related to “empty-nest elderly”, “cognitive function”, “mahjong”, and “Chinese square dance” in the Elsevier, Web of Science (WOS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Springer and PubMed databases. The study illustrates the utility possibility of an efficient and straightforward method for improving the cognitive function among the elderly in the context of community nursing care in China and even in the rest of the world.
Mental and physical activity contributes to cognitive fitness and may be beneficial in delaying cognitive decline. Mental activities, such as playing mahjong, and physical activities, such as the Chinese square dance, are common Chinese activities. Both of them can affect cognitive function in some way.
China is experiencing one of its most severe aging problems. Community health personnel and related professionals may consider using mahjong and Chinese square dance to promote psychological health in empty-nest elderly individuals in the community.
The paper focuses on the material mechanics properties of reinforced concrete and steel casing composite concrete under pseudo-static loads and their application in structure. Although elevated pile-group foundation is widely used in bridge, port and ocean engineering, the seismic performance of this type of foundation still need further study. Four scale-specimens of the elevated pile-group foundation were manufactured by these two kinds of concrete and seismic performance characteristic of each specimen were compared. Meanwhile, the special soil box was designed and built to consider soil-pile-superstructure interaction. According to the test result, the peak strength of strengthening specimens is about 1.77 times of the others and the ultimate displacement is 1.66 times of the RC specimens. Additionally, the dissipated hysteric energy capability of strengthening specimens is more than 2.15 times of the others as the equivalent viscous damping ratio is reduced by 50%. The pinching effect of first two specimens is more obvious than latter two specimens and the hysteretic loops of reinforced specimens are more plumpness. The pseudo-static tests also provided the data to quantitatively assessment the positive effect of steel casing composite concrete in aseismatic design of bridge.
This paper considers reasonable bandwidth allocation for multiclass services in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, measures the satisfaction of each peer as a customer by a utility function when acquiring one service, and develops an optimization model for bandwidth allocation with the objective of utility maximization. Elastic services with concave utilities are first considered and the exact expression of optimal bandwidth allocation for each peer is deduced. In order to obtain an optimum in distributed P2P networks, we develop a gradient-based bandwidth allocation scheme and illustrate the performance with numerical examples. Then we investigate bandwidth allocation for inelastic services with sigmoidal utilities, which is a nonconvex optimization problem. In order to solve it, we analyze provider capacity provisioning for bandwidth allocation of inelastic services and modify the update rule for prices that service customers should pay. Numerical examples are finally given to illustrate that the improved scheme can also efficiently converge to the global optimum.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydrogen on the therapy of onion poisoned dogs.
Material and Methods: A total of 16 adult beagle dogs were divided into two groups (control and hydrogen) and all were fed dehydrated onion powder at the dose of 10 g/kg for three days. The dogs of the experimental group were given subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mL/kg of hydrogen for 12 days after making the poisoned model successful. Blood samples were collected before feeding onions, one day before injecting hydrogen, and 2 h after the injection of hydrogen on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12. Control dogs were not treated with hydrogen.
Results: The levels of leukocyte production, anaemia, red blood cell degeneration which was reflected by the values of Heinz body count, haemolytic ratio, and oxidative products in hydrogen treated group were lower than in control dogs on some days. The capacity of medullary haematopoiesis that was based on reticulocyte counts, and the antioxidation in hydrogen group were higher compared with control group. However, the differences in renal function were not obvious in both groups.
Conclusion: Accordingly, it was concluded that subcutaneous injection of hydrogen could alleviate the symptoms in onion poisoned dogs.
Gastrointestinal parasites are some of the most common pathogens which are seriously harmful to the camel’s health. The infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in camels (Camelus bactrianus) in the Tianshan Mountains pastoral area in China is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the species and infection intensity of gastrointestinal tract parasites in local camels.
Material and Methods
A total of 362 fresh faecal samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs using the saturated saline floating and natural sedimentation method. The parasite eggs were subjected to morphological and molecular examination and identification, and the infection rate and mean intensity of the parasites were analysed.
A total of 15 gastrointestinal tract parasite species’ eggs were identified, with a detection rate of 100%. Ostertagia spp. (100%) and Trichostrongylus spp. (98.1%) were dominant. Camels were often coinfected by 5–14 species. The average number of eggs per gram of faeces was higher for Ostertagia spp. (298), Haemonchus contortus (176) and Nematodirus spp. (138). The number of species of parasites infecting young camels was significantly lower than that of adult camels, but the infection intensity in young camels was significantly higher.
Gastrointestinal parasites were highly prevalent in camels from the Tianshan Mountains pastoral area in China. This finding provides important epidemiological data for the prevention and control of associated infections in camels.
Anthocyanins are important bioactive supplements that are consumed from multiple foods and beverage products. Screening tea cultivars producing a high level of anthocyanins can help to enrich the edible bioactive supplements. ‘Zijuan’ (ZJ) is a tea cultivar growing purple shoots rich in anthocyanins, but it is susceptible to freezing winter and sprouts late in spring. Hybridisation using ‘ZJ’ as the female parent and an early sprouting cultivar ‘Wuniuzao’ as the male parent was carried out, and four hybrids with purple leaves were obtained. The quality of anthocyanins, catechins, caffeine and amino acids in shoots with three leaves and a bud of the purple leaf hybrids obtained were determined based on the field investigation on sprouting time in spring, winter resistance and leaf yield. It showed that hybrid ‘B-2’ sprouted earlier in the spring, contained a higher level of anthocyanins and also showed good performance in winter resistance than its female parent ‘ZJ’. It also showed that black tea processing induced a marked decrease in foliar anthocyanins, but green tea processing had little effect on the foliar anthocyanins. Purple tea leaves should be prepared into unfermented green tea instead of fermented black tea to preserve the high level of anthocyanins in the final tea products.
Spontaneous carotid cavernous fistula is usually caused by lesions in the internal carotid cavernous sinus and its branches. We report a young male patient with no history of trauma, in whom the fistula was located at the cavernous sinus of the internal carotid artery. The postoperative angiography found a pseudoaneurysm at the origin of the cavernous sinus of internal carotid artery, which suggested that cavernous sinus fistulas were caused by bleeding from rupture of thin-walled vessels due to the local abnormalities of the vascular wall.
This paper is concerned with sampled-data leader following consensus of multiple unmanned surface vehicle (MUSV) systems with random switching network topologies and wave-induced disturbance. By modelling the switching of network topologies with the use of a Markov process and considering the effect of wave-induced disturbance, a new sampled-data consensus control protocol is proposed. By employing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krosovskii function method and the weak infinitesimal operation, a novel stability criterion is derived, which ensures that the MUSV system can reach robustly leader-following consensus with H∞ performance satisfied. Based on this criterion, the Markov dependent switching consensus controller gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for MUSV systems.
In China, the oil and natural gas resources of Bohai Bay are mainly marginal oil fields. It is necessary to build both iceresistant and economical offshore platforms. However, there are many risks during the life cycle of offshore platforms due to the imperfect preliminary design for the Bohai Sea economical ice-resistant structures. As a result, the whole life-cycle design should be considered, including plan, design, construction, management and maintenance design. Based on the demand of existing codes and research of the basic design, structural ice-resistant performance and the reasonable management and maintenance, the life-cycle design theory is discussed. It was concluded that the life-cycle cost-effective optimum design proposed will lead to a minimum risk.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become the main treatment for early esophageal cancer. While treating the disease, ESD may also cause postoperative esophageal stricture, which is a global issue that needs resolution. Various methods have been applied to resolve the problem, such as mechanical dilatation, glucocorticoids, anti-scarring drugs, and regenerative medicine; however, no standard treatment regimen exists. This article describes and evaluates the strengths and limitations of new and promising potential strategies for the treatment and prevention of esophageal strictures.