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  • Author: Yu-Hui Xi x
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Toolbox of teaching strategies


A teaching strategy is a method, which can help students to gain knowledge, deliver information, and improve their learning. Different learning environments, such as clinical teaching, online teaching, and face-to-face traditional learning environments, require different teaching strategies for students. Choosing teaching strategies for a course is very important for nurse educators because various factors should be taken into account to make students meet the learning outcomes. The use of modern technologies in teaching strategies can improve students’ competencies and confidences. The purpose of this article is to create a toolbox integrating ten teaching strategies that can be used in different teaching environments.

Open access
NPS2390, a selective calcium-sensing receptor antagonist controls the phenotypic modulation of hypoxic human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by regulating autophagy


Background and Objectives

Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is known to regulate hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and vascular remodeling via the phenotypic modulation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in small pulmonary arteries. Moreover, autophagy is an essential modulator of VSMC phenotype. But it is not clear whether CaSR can regulate autophagy involving the phenotypic modulation under hypoxia.


The viability of human PASMCs was detected by cell cycle and BrdU. The expressions of proliferation protein, phenotypic marker protein, and autophagy protein in human PASMCs were determined by western blot.


Our results showed that hypoxia-induced autophagy was considerable at 24 h. The addition of NPS2390 decreased the expression of autophagy protein and synthetic phenotype marker protein osteopontin and increased the expression of contractile phenotype marker protein SMA-ɑ and calponin via suppressing downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways.


Our study demonstrates that treatment of NPS2390 was conducive to inhibit the proliferation and reverse phenotypic modulation of PASMCs by regulating autophagy levels.

Open access