The purpose of this article was to analyze the amendment of Fugitive Offenders Ordinance & Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance, which caused widespread controversy in Hong Kong recently. This amendment stemmed from a murder case that occurred in Taiwan, which led the Hong Kong government to decide to fill the legal loopholes in the extradition law. The amendment abolished the prohibition of extradition of China and made the fundamental changes to the vetting procedure for extradition. However, based on the question to the judicial environment in China and the unequal relationship between Hong Kong and China, many Hong Kong people believed that the amendment would seriously threaten their personal safety. The amendment mattered important because people it affected were not only Hong Kong citizens, but also foreigners staying in Hong Kong. And as an important international financial center, the influence of Hong Kong couldn’t be underestimated. Therefore, the amendment had triggered a high degree of international concern. This article will analyze the contents of the amendment and the supports and the oppositions to clarify the dispute and discuss whether the amendment is good or bad.
Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with Sonovue in assessing of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) following ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA).
Patients and methods. Seventy-nine patients (60 males and 19 females) with 83 lesions (mean size 3.2±1.6 cm) were treated by US-guided percutaneous MWA. The CEUS results of the third day after the ablation were compared with the synchronous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and biopsy pathological results. The follow-up was performed by CEUS and CT/MRI after 1, 3, 6 months and every 6 months subsequently. The combination of clinical follow-up results and CT/MRI imaging findings was the reference standard of CEUS results for evaluating the therapeutic effect. The identification of residual or recurrence tumour was assessed by two blinded radiologists.
Results. On the third day after MWA, CEUS showed 68 of 83 lesions (68/83, 81.9%) successfully ablated and 15 of 83 (18.1%) with residual tumours. Among residual tumours, 13 (86.7%) were confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT/MRI findings and biopsy results. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value of CEUS evaluating the short-term MWA effectiveness were 100%, 97.1%, 97.6%, 86.7% and 100%, respectively. During the six years follow-up (median 26 months), the CEUS showed recurrence in 7 patients, and six of them achieved consistent results on CEUS and CT/MRI imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value for CEUS evaluating long-term MWA effectiveness were 85.7%, 98.7%, 97.6%, 85.7% and 98.7%, respectively.
Conclusions. The post-procedural CEUS demonstrated as an effective and feasible method in evaluating a therapeutic effect of RCCs following MWA.
An oolite in the Furongian (Late Cambrian) Chaomidian Formation in Shandong Province, China, which was deposited on the North China Platform in an epeiric sea, contains several limestone breccia lenses of various dimensions (centimetres to decimetres thick and decimetres to more than 10 metres in length) in an E-trending section. The oolite, which is approximately 40 cm thick, was originally thicker, as indicated by a planar truncation surface that formed by wave abrasion. The breccia lenses in this oolite are generally mound-shaped with a flat base and a convex top. The western margin of the lenses is commonly rounded whereas the eastern margin commonly has a tail (consisting of a rapidly eastwards thinning breccia horizon that gradually ends in a horizon of isolated clasts). Some of the breccia lenses are underlain by a shear zone.
The formation of the breccia lenses cannot be easily explained by normal depositional or deformational processes. It is concluded that the lenses represent fragments of a partly consolidated layer, consisting of both rounded and angular platy clasts, which slid down over a very gently inclined sedimentary surface which acted – possibly together with a water film – as a lubricant layer. During transport, the layer broke up into several discrete bodies that formed small ‘highs’ at the sedimentary surface of the shallow epeiric sea. Subsequently, waves partially eroded the lenses, mostly at their margins, producing their mound-shaped form.
Sliding of blocks is known from a wide variety of environments in the sedimentary record; however, this is the first description of the sliding of blocks in an epeiric sea. This indicates that such a low-relief submarine carbonate setting is, like its siliciclastic counterparts, susceptible to this process.
Background: Usually children mistakenly swallow foreign bodies, and most objects are spontaneously discharged through the digestive tract without consequence. However, sometimes the objects can cause gastrointestinal perforation, with serious complications.
Objective: To report the case of a 26-year-old male patient, who mistakenly swallowed a bamboo chopstick 14 years ago. The chopstick eventually perforated the gastric fundus and left diaphragm, pierced the lower left lobe of the lung, and caused a lower left lung abscess.
Method: A thoracotomy was conducted to remove the foreign body and the lower left lobe of the lung, followed by a patch fundoplication.
Result: The object was removed and the patient’s lesions healed after surgery.
Conclusion: The ingestion of foreign bodies rarely causes serious problems, but we should be vigilant to the occurrence of complications, and close follow-up should be conducted. This follow-up should include confirmation that the foreign body has passed through the alimentary tract.
With aim to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) melt-blown nonwovens (MBs), polyamide 11 (PA11) was melt blended with PLA at the weight proportions of PLA/PA11 (95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20), and the corresponding PLA/PA11 MBs were also manufactured. The crystallization, thermal and rheological behaviors of PLA/PA11 blends were investigated. PLA/PA11 MBs were also characterized by morphology and mechanical properties. The results indicated that PA11, as globular dispersed phases, formed confined crystals and could improve the thermal stability of PLA matrix. The viscosity of PLA/PA11 blends was slightly increased but the rheological behaviors of “shear-thinning” kept unchanged in comparison with PLA. The average diameter of PLA/PA11 MB fibers was slightly increased, whereas the toughness of PLA/PA11 MBs including the strength and elongation were efficiently enhanced compared with those of PLA MBs.
Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF) process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM) in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.
Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.
Material and Methods
Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.
The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.
In this paper the image fusion algorithm based on Contourlet transform and Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) was proposed to improve the performance of the image fusion in the detection accuracy of obstacles in forests. At the same time, the wavelet transform and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were simulated for comparison with the proposed algorithm. Then visible and infrared thermal images were collected in a forest. The experimental results have shown that the fused images using the method proposed provided a better understanding of the reality, enhanced images’ clarity and eliminated factors which provided shelters for targets.
This study proposes the establishment of a knowledge-system ontology in the nursing field. It uses advanced data mining techniques, digital publishing technologies, and new media concepts to comprehensively integrate and deepen nursing knowledge and to aggregate sources of knowledge in specialized technical fields. This study applies all forms of media and transmission channels, such as personal computers and mobile devices, to establish a knowledge-transmission system that provides knowledge services such as knowledge search, update retrieval, evaluation, questions and answers (Q&As), online viewing, information subscription, expert services, push notifications, review forums, and online learning. In doing so, this study creates an authoritative and foundational knowledge service engine for the nursing field, which provides convenient, flexible, and comprehensive knowledge services to members of the nursing industry in a digital format.
To investigate the necessary eligibility criteria for prescriptive authority for midwives, gather suggestions from experts on training content for prescriptive authority for midwives, and explore the scope of practice of their prescriptive authority in certain circumstances. The results of this study could serve as a reference for the development of policies on prescriptive authority for midwives.
Based on a literature search and semistructured interviews, a modified Delphi method was first used to conduct 2 rounds of expert consultation on eligibility criteria and training content for prescriptive authority for midwives. This stage included nursing experts () and medical experts () engaged in midwifery in many tertiary Grade A hospitals in China. Subsequently, consultation on the scope of practice of prescriptive authority for midwives was conducted with nursing experts () and medical experts () engaged in midwifery in many tertiary Grade A hospitals in China. The suggestions from the experts were analyzed using statistical methods to confirm the eligibility criteria for prescriptive authority, training content, circumstances, scope of practice for prescriptive authority, and the prescription forms.
Among the consulted experts, 70.59% (the highest acceptance rate) considered an undergraduate degree to be the minimum educational requirement for midwives to be eligible for prescriptive authority, 85.29% (the highest acceptance rate) considered the supervisor nurse to be the minimum technical position experience necessary for midwives to be eligible for having prescriptive authority, and 50% (the highest acceptance rate) considered 5 years to be the minimum number of years of experience in the specialty for midwives to be eligible for prescriptive authority. The applicants should at least be practicing at Grade C hospitals, which was the consensus among 91.18% of the consulted experts. Among the consulted experts, 100%, 100%, 97.06%, 94.12%, and 94.12% agreed that the applicants should have knowledge in pharmacology, laws and ethics, nursing, diagnostics, and midwifery, respectively. The consulted experts confirmed 22 related course topics and identified 6 specific circumstances in which the midwives could partially practice prescriptive authority, including uterine atony, excessive uterine contraction, postpartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of fetal membranes, normal labor, and neonatal asphyxia. Under these 6 circumstances, the consulted experts commonly agreed that there were 20 medication prescriptions and 13 auxiliary examination prescriptions that could be prescribed by midwives. Of these prescriptions, 51.5% were independent prescriptions, 30.3% were protocol prescriptions, and the remaining 18.2% were both independent and protocol prescriptions.
Midwives who have an undergraduate degree, supervisor nurse position, and 5 years of practice in Grade C hospitals are considered eligible to apply for prescriptive authority. Partial prescriptive authority could be granted after regulated training in fundamental theories and practices, which could improve the independence and professionalism of midwifery.