An effective process for the synthesis of nano spinel zinc ferrite/expanded graphite composites was developed in order to get an electromagnetic interference shielding material. Firstly, expandable graphite was prepared using sulfuric and nitric acid solutions. Then, the precursor of the composites was produced by chemical co-precipitation method, followed by heating treatment. The obtained composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric and magnetic properties were determined using vector network analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that ferrite nanoparticles with the sizes of about 50–150 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface and interspace of EG. The magnetic properties of the composites changed by adjusting the ferrite/EG ratio and the composites had high dielectric constant in the range of 2–18 GHz. These properties of the prepared composites suggest that they can be used as a promising electromagnetic interference shielding material.
The adjacency matrix of a graph is a matrix which represents adjacent relation between the vertices of the graph. Its minimum eigenvalue is defined as the least eigenvalue of the graph. Let Gn be the set of the graphs of order n, whose complements are connected and have pendent paths. This paper investigates the least eigenvalue of the graphs and characterizes the unique graph which has the minimum least eigenvalue in Gn.
The role of corticosteroids in the management of severely ill patients with influenza A (H1N1) viral infection is unclear and controversial. Two critically ill cases with influenza A (H1N1) infections complicated with organizing pneumonia (OP) in 2011 successfully treated with low dose corticosteroids were reported here. After initial clinical improvement, the condition of both patients aggravated 20-23 days after the onset of illness. Chest X-ray and computed tomographies (CT) showed an increment of lung infiltrates. Cultures of blood, pleural fluid and transbronchial aspirate were negative for bacteria and fungi. Organizing pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and both patients were successfully treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Low-dose corticosteroids initiated during convalescence may be beneficial for severe swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (S-OIV) infections.
The coal mining has brought a series of ecological problems and environmental problems in permafrost regions. Taking Muli coal-mining area as an example, this article attempts to analyse the environmental harms caused by coal mining and its protection measures in permafrost regions of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. This article analyses the influence of open mining on the surrounding permafrost around the open pit by using the numerical simulation. The results show that (1) based on the interrelation between coal mining and permafrost environment, these main environmental harm include the permafrost change and the natural environment change in cold regions; (2) once the surface temperature rises due to open mining, the permafrost will disappear with the increase of exploitation life. If considering the solar radiation, the climate conditions and the geological condition around the pit edge, the maximum thaw depth will be more than 2 m; (3) the protection measures are proposed to avoid the disadvantage impact on the permafrost environment caused by coal mining. It will provide a scientific basis for the resource development and environment protection in cold regions.
Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (Xad) is the most destructive disease of ornamental anthurium. In the present study, foliar resistance of 21 anthurium cultivars were assessed under shaded field and laboratory conditions by injection inoculation of 3 × 108 cfu/ml Xad; disease severity was evaluated using a pretransformed rating scale after symptoms survey. Then six selected cultivars with different resistance levels were evaluated for the induced activities of six defence-related enzymes. The obtained results indicated that the same cultivar shared identical resistance under both conditions, but there was a great variation among the cultivars. Anthurium cv. Pink Champion and Manaka showed the highest resistance, and five other cultivars were highly susceptible. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the resistant cultivars increased much faster and reached much higher peak levels than those in susceptible cultivars. Further analyses revealed that the relative resistance index (RRI) significantly positively correlated with the activities of SOD, APX, POD and PAL, but not with catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), suggesting that early rapid accumulation of SOD, APX, PAL and POD might be an important mechanism of defence against Xad and could serve as one of the valuable physiological indices for the prediction of BB resistance in anthurium germplasm. Consequently, the identified resistant cultivars and the induced defence enzymes will facilitate the phytopathological research and enhance blight resistance selection in future breeding.
Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.
Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.
Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.
Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.
Vehicle emission calculation is critical for evaluating motor vehicle related environmental protection policies. Currently, many studies calculate vehicle emissions from integrating the microscopic traffic simulation model and the vehicle emission model. However, conventionally vehicle emission models are presented as a stand-alone software, requiring a laborious processing of the simulated second-by-second vehicle activity data. This is inefficient, in particular, when multiple runs of vehicle emission calculations are needed. Therefore, an integrated vehicle emission computation system is proposed around a microscopic traffic simulation model. In doing so, the relational database technique is used to store the simulated traffic activity data, and these data are used in emission computation through a built-in emission computation module developed based on the IVE model. In order to ensure the validity of the simulated vehicle activity data, the simulation model is calibrated using the genetic algorithm. The proposed system was implemented for a central urban region of Nanjing city. Hourly vehicle emissions of three types of vehicles were computed using the proposed system for the afternoon peak period, and the results were compared with those computed directly from the IVE software with a trivial difference in the results from the proposed system and the IVE software, indicating the validity of the proposed system. In addition, it was found for the study region that passenger cars are critical for controlling CO, buses are critical for controlling CO and VOC, and trucks are critical for controlling NOx and CO2. Future work is to test the proposed system in more traffic management and control strategies, and more vehicle emission models are to be incorporated in the system.
Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.
Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.
Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.
This study aimed to develop and apply a closed-loop medication administration system in a hospital in order to reduce medication administration errors (MAEs).
The study was implemented in four pilot general wards. We used a before-and-after design to collect oral medication administration times before and after the implementation of the closed-loop medication administration system, evaluated MAE alert logs after the intervention, and conducted a survey of the nurses’ satisfaction with the system in the pilot wards.
(a) Nursing time of oral medication administration: before the adoption of the closed-loop medication administration system, the average nursing time was 31.56 ± 10.88 minutes (n = 78); after the adoption of the system, the time was 18.74 ± 5.60 minutes (n = 54). Independent sample t-tests showed a significant difference between two groups (t = 8.85, P <0.00). (b) Degree of nurses’ satisfaction with the closed-loop medication administration system: 60.00% (n = 42) of nurses considered the system to be helpful for their work and nearly half of the nurses (47.14%, n = 33) believed that the system could facilitate clinical work and reduce workload; 51.43% (n = 36) believed that the system could reduce checking time and enhance work efficiency; 82.86% (n = 58) believed that the system was helpful in improving checking accuracy to reduce MAEs and ensure patient safety. More than 60% of the nurses considered the system to be a method that could help to track MAEs to improve nursing quality. (c) The MAE alert logs during observation period: it revealed only 27 alerts from the repeated scans of 3,428 instances of medication administration.
The nurses were satisfied with the closed-loop medication administration system because it improved their work efficiency and reduced their workload. The current investigation was limited by time; therefore, further research is needed to more closely examine the relationship between the system and MAEs.
Introduction: To identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ketosis, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation/mass spectrometry was used to define differences in protein expression profiles between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis.
Material and Methods: To define the novel pathways of ketosis in cattle, the differences in protein expression were analysed by bioinformatics. Go Ontology and Pathway analysis were carried out for enrich the role and pathway of the different expression proteins between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis.
Results: Differences were identified in 19 proteins, 16 of which were relatively up-regulated while the remaining 3 were relatively down-regulated. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) were up-regulated in cattle with ketosis. SORD and G3PD promoted glycolysis. These mechanisms lead to pyruvic acid production increase and ketone body accumulation.
Conclusion: The novel pathways of glycolysis provided new evidence for the research of ketosis.