Hyojeong Choi, Han Soo Kim, Joon-Ho Oh, Dong Jin Kim, Young Soo Kim, Jong-Seo Chai and Jang Ho Ha
Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe crystals grown by the low pressure Bridgman (LPB) method were investigated for four different doping concentrations (unintentionally doped, 4.97 × 1019 cm−3, 9.94 × 1019 cm−3 and 1.99 × 1020 cm−3) and three different locations within the ingots (namely, samples from top, middle and bottom positions in the order of the distance from the tip of the ingot). It was shown that Cl dopant suppressed the unwanted secondary (5 1 1) crystalline orientation. Also, the average size and surface coverage of Te inclusions decreased with an increase in Cl doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical quality of the Cl-doped CdTe single crystals was enhanced. The resistivity of the CdTe sample doped with Cl at the 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 was above 1010 Ω.cm.
The geometry of engineering systems affects their performances. For this reason, the shape of engineering systems needs to be optimized in the initial design stage. However, engineering system design problems consist of multi-objective optimization and the performance analysis using commercial code or numerical analysis is generally time-consuming. To solve these problems, many engineers perform the optimization using the approximation model (response surface). The Response Surface Method (RSM) is generally used to predict the system performance in engineering research field, but RSM presents some prediction errors for highly nonlinear systems. The major objective of this research is to establish an optimal design method for multi-objective problems and confirm its applicability. The proposed process is composed of three parts: definition of geometry, generation of response surface, and optimization process. To reduce the time for performance analysis and minimize the prediction errors, the approximation model is generated using the Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (BPANN) which is considered as Neuro-Response Surface Method (NRSM). The optimization is done for the generated response surface by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Through case studies of marine system and ship structure (substructure of floating offshore wind turbine considering hydrodynamics performances and bulk carrier bottom stiffened panels considering structure performance), we have confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for multi-objective side constraint optimization problems.
Hag Soo Jang, Hwa Joon Lee, Young Ryeol Joo, Jung Joong Kim and Ho Hwan Chun
The hydrodynamic effect of appendages for high-speed passenger vessels, such as Ro-Pax, Ro-Ro and cruiser vessels, is very severe and, therefore, it is essential to carry out the design of appendages for high-speed passenger vessels from the preliminary design stage to the final detail design stage through a full survey of the reference vessels together with sufficient technical investigation. Otherwise, many problems would be caused by mismatches between the appendages and the hull form. This paper investigates the design characteristics of some appendages, such as the side thruster, the shaft-strut, and the stern wedge, based on the design experience accumulated at Samsung, on CFD, and on model test results for high-speed passenger vessels. Further to this investigation, some practical and valuable design guidelines for such appendages are suggested.
Dong-Hyun Lee, Mun-Keun Ha, Soo-Young Kim and Sung-Chul Shin
With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.
Bo-Young Chung, Soo-Young Kim, Sung-Chul Shin, Youn-Hoe Koo and Andreas Kraus
This study aims to optimize an arrangement of ship compartments with knowledge-based systems. Though great attention has been shown to the optimization of hull forms in recent years, the study on arrangement design optimization has received relatively little attention. A ship is both an engineering system and a kind of assembly of many spaces. This means that, to design an arrangement of ship compartments, it is necessary to treat not only geometric data but also knowledge on topological relations between spaces and components of a ship. In this regard, we select a suitable knowledge representation scheme for describing ship compartments and their relations, and then develop a knowledge-based system using expert system shell. This new approach is applied to create design variations for optimization on an arrangement of a pressure hull of a submerged vehicle. Finally, we explicate how our approach improves the design process.
Sang-Seop Lim, Tae-Won Kim, Dong-Myung Lee, Chung-Gil Kang and Soo-Young Kim
The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF) and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with a propeller open water (POW) test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE) case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test result showed that the hub vortex is increased downstream of the propeller.
Dong Jin Kim, Joon-Ho Oh, Han Soo Kim, Young Soo Kim, Manhee Jeong, Chang Goo Kang, Woo Jin Jo, Hyojeong Choi, Jong Guk Kim, Seung Hee Lee and Jang Ho Ha
TlBr single crystals grown using the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method were characterized for semiconductor based radiation detector applications. It has been shown that the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method is effective to grow high-quality single crystalline ingots of TlBr. The TlBr single crystalline sample, which was located 6 cm from the tip of the ingot, exhibited lower impurity concentration, higher crystalline quality, high enough bandgap (>2.7 eV), and higher resistivity (2.5 × 1011 Ω·cm) which enables using the fabricated samples from the middle part of the TlBr ingot for fabricating high performance semiconductor radiation detectors.
Jin Choi, Dongkon Lee, Hee Jin Kang, Soo-Young Kim and Sung-Chul Shin
Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC) of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.
Yong-Uk Jeong, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, Jang Yeoung-Hwan, Dong-Hwi Kim, So-Hyun Park, Kyung-il Park, Young-Don Lee and Moon-Soo Heo
Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan) was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (−) and SI-36 38 (+). The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS) of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.
Pyong-Kon Cho, Sung-Hyun Lee, Mi-Hwa Lee, Young-Kwon Cho, Kwon-Soo Chon and Yong-Min Kim
Background: In cases of patients with chronic liver disease, lesions were often detected in MRI replacing in computed tomography (CT) test because of the difference in X-ray attenuation that is likely to depend on constituent nodules. Therefore, the importance of pre enhancement study at liver dynamic CT scan is being emphasized.
Objective: To find optimal protocol and to reduce radiation dose without compromising image quality while taking low kilovoltage (kVp) liver dynamic CT examination using MDCT.
Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients under follow-up who were diagnosed of liver cancer have been examined using a 16-slice MDCT scanner, CT body dose phantom, and CT performance phantom for simulation. Contrast noise ratio and noise of water using phantom have been measured and Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index has been measured according to examination methods. Three points of liver parenchyma, aorta, and subcutaneous fat has been measured for CT attenuation value and compared with magnification picture archiving and communication system in 200% and region of interest for the same size.
Results: Scanning parameters were 120 kVp-140 mAs, 120 kVp-120mAs, and 80 kVp-280 mAs. The CNR was 6.87, 3.36, and 7.66 HU, respectively. Also, the noise of water was 6.83, 7.36, and 9.04 HU respectively. The CT attenuation value for the liver parenchyma, aorta, and fat is high about 15, 217, and 19 HU, respectively. Also, CTDIvol decreased to about 47.36%.
Conclusion: Four phase liver dynamic CT examination with low CT kVp setup is a useful tactic to reduce radiation dose and also can provide necessary images for clinical diagnosis when compared to the results from three phase liver dynamic CT.