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Open access

Ren-feng Li, Xiang-qin Tian, Yong Liu, Jing Xu and Dong-yang Liu

Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is having a severe effect on the pig breeding industry in central China. The mucosa and the content of the small intestine from newborn pre-weaned piglets with diarrhea were tested for the presence of PEDV by molecular and morphologic methods, and found to be positive. Negative-staining electron microscopy (EM) revealed the presence of coronavirus- like particles in the samples. The result of molecular detection by nested RT-PCR based on the amplification of the M gene was positive. Using a novel alternative method we successfully propagated the PEDV strain (CH/QX-2) in Vero cells, confirmed by ultrathin sections of the cells and Immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial S gene showed that the CH/QX-2 isolate was genetically closer to strains more commonly found in China, but differed genetically from two domestic strains (CH/S, 1986 and LZC, 2007), Korean strains (DR13, 2007), and the vaccine strain (CV777 vs) currently being used in China. CH/QX-2 formed a unique clade in the derived phylogenetic tree indicating that the CH/QX-2 strain currently circulating in central China is a new variant of PEDV. This study extends current knowledge on the diversity and epidemiology of PEDV.

Open access

Yong Qin, Yuyan Luo, Jingru Lu, Lu Yin and Xinran Yu

Abstract

Resources and the environment have always been the two important natural factors that affect people’s lives. In recent years, the problem of resources and the environment has increasingly become an important issue that people are concerned about. This study discusses the use and consumption of energy and the impact of environmental pollution on economic development under sustainable economic development. This paper takes Panzhihua as an example to analyze the impact of energy and environment on the economy, and proposes solutions to improve economic development, which is of strategic significance for the future development of Panzhihua City. In this paper, the system dynamics method is used to decompose the Panzhihua large-scale system into three parts and carry out modeling and simulation to explore the connection between them. Based on the data from 2007 to 2015 in Panzhihua City, simulations have been carried out to obtain qualitative and quantitative analysis of certain simulation curves of the energy-environment-economy 3E system (hereinafter referred to as 3E system) from 2007 to 2030 to ascertain the future development pattern of Panzhihua City. The results show that when the 3E system is a coordinated development model, economic development and environmental protection have a good development trend at the same time, which is applicable to the future development of Panzhihua City. This model has good reference suggestions and application prospects for urban development. We want to give Panzhihua City the following suggestions: (1) Continue to focus on the secondary industry and increase competitiveness. (2) Increase the investment funds in environmental protection and achieve sustainable economic development.

Open access

Yong Qin, Yuyan Luo, Yuqing Zhao and Jin Zhang

Abstract

In recent years, with the rapid growth of Chinese economy, the domestic tourism industry has gradually formed. Many scholars on the relationship between the tourism income and economic growth has carried on the empirical research and the most found that tourism income promote economic growth. The study uses the method of meta-analysis to study the relationship between tourism income and economic growth in major cities, and then analyzes the relationship between domestic tourism income and economic growth. Through literature retrieval, extract contains 409 sample sizes 21 valid documents, it is found that the tourism income and economic growth significantly correlated, analyzing the relation between the two different methods and no significant influence on the relation between regional differences. This study provides a way to promote economic growth.

Open access

Yong-jian Ji, Wan-hua Ren, Fei-fei Li, Jian-ting Fang, Xi-zhen Sun and Cheng-yong Qin

Abstract

Objective To investigate the quantitation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) at week 24 in predicting the efficacy of pegylated-interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN-α 2a) in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients at week 48 and to find a useful predictor for treatment efficacy and investigate individualized treatment of antiviral therapy.

Methods Ninety-six HBeAg-positive CHB patients with detectable HBeAg who were treated with Peg-IFN-α 2a were enrolled in this trial. They were categorized into 3 groups according to the changes of HBeAg in week 24: HBeAg decline > 2 log10 group (group A), HBeAg decline between 1 1og10 - 2 log10 (group B), HBeAg decline < 1 log10 group (group C), and group C was randomly distributed into C1 and C2. The patients in group A, group B, and group C1 continued the original therapy and the patients in group C2 were given lamivudine plus Peg-IFN-α 2a for 24 weeks. At week 48, the treatment efficacy and hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) in liver biopsies were analyzed.

Results At week 48, mean reduction of serum HBV DNA: group A: 5.8 log10 copies/ml, group B: 3.8 log10 copies/ml, group C1: 2.8 log10 copies/ml, group C2: 5.7 log10 copies/ml, the reduction of HBV DNA in group A was greater than groups B and C1 (P < 0.01), that in group C1 was greater than group C2 (P < 0.01), the difference between groups B and C1 had no statistical significance (P = 0.19). Mean reduction of HBeAg: group A: 2.7 log10S/CO, group B: 1.9 log10S/CO, group C1: 0.9 log10S/CO, group C2: 1.5 log10S/CO, the difference among groups A, B and C1 and between groups C1 and C2 were statistically significant (P < 0.01). At week 48, HBV DNA undetectable rate in group A, group B, group C1 and group C2 were 87.5%, 34.5%, 17.4% and 81.9%, respectively, the rate in group A was greater than groups B and C1 (P < 0.01),that in group C1 was greater than group C2 (P < 0.01). HBeAg seroconversion rate were 75.0%, 24.1%, 13.0% and 22.7%, respectively, that in group A was greater than groups B and C1 (P < 0.01). Group A had lower cccDNA in liver tissue than group B and group C1 (P < 0.01). The difference of HBV cccDNA between groups B and C1 and that between groups C1 and C2 had no statistical significance.

Conclusions HBeAg decline > 2 log10 at week 24 in Peg-IFN-α 2a-treated hepatitis B patients suggested a better efficacy at week 48; HBeAg decline < 2 log10 at week 24 suggests a worse efficacy at week 48, the combined therapy of Peg-IFN-α and lamivudine could improve the clinical responses. The change of quantitative of HBeAg at week 24 may be used as a predictor of treatment effects at week 48.

Open access

Li Wang, Hua-Min Liu, Ai-Jun Xie, Chun-Yan Zhu and Guang-Yong Qin

Abstract

Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW) from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA) extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB) increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR) decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

Open access

Jian Liang, Meng Zhou, Lin-Yu Li, Ji-Cheng Shu, Yong-Hong Liang, Feng-Qin Li, Li Xiong and Hui-Lian Huang

Abstract

Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) coupled with a chemometric method is proposed in this study to profile and distinguish between rhizomes of Smilax glabra (S. glabra) and Smilax china (S. china). The proposed method employed an electrospray-time-of-flight MS. The MS fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with the aid of SIMCA software. Findings showed that the two kinds of samples perfectly fell into their own classes. Further predictive study showed desirable predictability and the tested samples were successfully and reliably identified. The study demonstrated that the proposed method could serve as a powerful tool for distinguishing between S. glabra and S. china.