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Open access

Zhang Zhi-yong, Li Ming-xu, Yu Yong-wu and Zhou Chun-hua


Background: At present, patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRD) face the question of how to achieve adequate dialysis to maintain their survival with the best quality of life as long as possible. Therefore, the choice of suitable dialysis methods and dialysis dose is important.

Objective: To find suitable dialysis methods and an appropriate dialysis dose for patients with ESRD.

Methods: Our research compares the long-term clinical effects between the patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), daytime ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (DAPD), and hemodialysis (HD). Thirty-two patients subjected to peritoneal dialysis were selected and divided into group A (n = 16) and group B (n = 16), group A was treated by using the traditional CAPD pattern; group B was treated by using DAPD. Forty-six patients of renal failure at final stage were divided into group A (n = 23) and group B (n = 23), group A was treated by using a HD method, group B was treated by using a DAPD method.

Results: When the same dialysis dose was applied, the patients with long-term DAPD treatment can obtain satisfactory clinical therapeutic efficacy for the period of maintenance dialysis, thoroughness of dialysis, maintenance of nutritional status, blood pressure regulation, reduction in incidence rate of peritoneal infection, maintenance of relatively high activity in daily life and alleviation in depression, comparable to patients treated with traditional CAPD or HD methods.

Conclusion: The long-term clinical effects of DAPD are comparable to CAPD or HD.

Open access

Xiaoxia Song and Yong Li


This paper is connected with compress-and-forward strategy for two-user relay broadcast channels without common messages, where the relay node has private messages from the source, in addition to aiding traditional communication from the source to the destination. For this channel we derive two achievable rate regions based on the compress-and-forward strategy in cases of discrete memoryless channels and Gaussian channels, respectively. The numerical results for Gaussian relay broadcast channel show that the inner bound based on the compress-and-forward strategy improves when all the messages without peeling off any components are compressed and sent to the receiver. It also verifies that the inner bound based on compress-and-forward strategy is better than that based on decode-and-forward strategy, when the relay node is near to the sink node. Moreover, the rate region of the broadcast channel improves considerably when the collaboration between the two receivers is allowed. So the relay node can provide residual resources to help the communication between the source and the sink after its communication rate is satisfied, which gives some insights to select an available relay node in a practical communication system.

Open access

Yong Liao, Zhen-Nan Fan, Li Han and Li-Dan Xie


In order to research the losses and heat of damper bars thoroughly, a multislice moving electromagnetic field-circuit coupling FE model of tubular hydro-generator and a 3D temperature field FE model of the rotor are built respectively. The factors such as rotor motion and non-linearity of the time-varying electromagnetic field, the stator slots skew, the anisotropic heat conduction of the rotor core lamination and different heat dissipation conditions on the windward and lee side of the poles are considered. Furthermore, according to the different operating conditions, different rotor structures and materials, compositive calculations about the losses and temperatures of the damper bars of a 36 MW generator are carried out, and the data are compared with the test. The results show that the computation precision is satisfied and the generator design is reasonable.

Open access

Wang Zhen-fei, Mu Yong-ping, Liang Jun-qing, Liu Yong-yan and Li Jing-quan



This study aimed to investigate the influence of Xanthii fructus on the expression of small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) and the malignant behaviors of lung cancer cells.


A549 cells were treated with Xanthii fructus extract. SncRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR. Proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion capacities were determined using Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8, soft agar colony formation, and Matrigel assays, respectively.


Xanthii fructus extract downregulated microRNA (miR)-21 expression and upregulated PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)55490 expression. The proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasion capacities of A549 cells were strongly inhibited by the extract.


Xanthii fructus can inhibit the malignant behaviors of lung cancer cells.

Open access

Ai-kun Ding, Li-wei Guo, Yong-kong Wang, Wei Liu, Cheng Li and Chang-yuan Wang


Objective To study the mutual relationship between anti-HBx and IL-10, IL-12 or soluble Fas (sFas) in sera of patients with chronic HBV infection and to explore the importance of anti-HBx detection as well as its role in the development of chronic HBV infection.

Methods Total of 90 cases with chronic HBV infection were randomly selected, including 10 of asymptomatic carriers (ASC), 28 of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 26 of liver cirrhosis (LC) and 26 patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Their clinical data and blood samples were collected, and serum was prepared and stored at -73℃. Anti-HBx was detected with an indirect ELISA established in our earlier research, and levels of IL-10, IL-12 and Fas were determined with commercial double-antibody sandwich ELISA kits. The mutual relationship between anti-HBx and IL-10, IL-12 or sFas in serum were analyzed with the software SPSS 20.0.

Results All levels of IL-10, IL-12 and sFas in peripheral blood showed a rising trend with development of chronic HBV infection. The levels of IL-10 in ASC, CHB, LC and HCC groups were 13.93 ± 14.40 ng/L, 39.38 ± 20.77 ng/L, 69.06 ± 46.37 ng/L and 62.82 ± 23.42 ng/L, respectively, levels of IL-12 in the 4 groups were 15.64 ± 23.04 ng/L, 68.50 ± 23.14 ng/L, 76.83 ± 12.82 ng/L and 83.74 ± 24.88 ng/L, respectively, and levels of sFas were 58.17 ± 77.42 ng/L, 179.88 ± 104.36 ng/L, 249.22 ± 107.80 ng/L and 252.98 ± 87.65 ng/L, respectively. Twenty-seven out of 90 patients showed a positive result for anti-HBx detection, including 1 in ASC, 4 in CHB, 12 in LC and 10 in HCC group. The levels of IL-10, IL-12 and sFas were higher in anti-HBx positive group than in negative group. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences of IL-10 and IL-12 between the two groups (P < 0.05), but the differences of sFas had no statistical significance (P = 0.094).

Conclusions Anti-HBx antibody is not protective, and is closely related to IL-10, IL-12 and sFas. It may be an important serum indicator for aggravation from chronic hepatitis B to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic HBV infection.

Open access

Yong Han, Bingyi Shi, Ming Cai, Xiaoguang Xu, Liang Xu, Qiang Wang, Wenqiang Zhou and Li Xiao

CD20 Expression in the Transplanted Kidney of Patients with Graft Loss and Transient Allograft Dysfunction

This study aimed to explore the relationship between the infiltration of CD20+ B cells and the survival time of a renal allograft and to investigate the role of infiltrated B cells in the rejection of the renal allograft. A total of 40 patients with renal allograft loss due to refractory rejection and 20 patients with transient renal allograft dysfunction were recruited. Renal biopsy was done and CD20 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the survival time of the renal allograft was also obtained. The relationships between the CD20 expression and the survival time of the renal allograft and graft loss due to rejection were analyzed. The associations of gender, age and clinicopathogical types with the CD20 expression were also investigated. The proportion of patients positive for CD20 in the transplanted kidney was higher in patients receiving nephrectomy of the allograft due to rejection than in those with transient allograft dysfunction. The diffuse infiltration of CD20+ B cells was considered as positive staining. In 40 samples from patients with graft loss, 19 had diffuse infiltration of CD20+ B cells (47.5%). In 19 patients positive for CD20, hyperacute rejection was found in 1 patient, acute rejection in 5 and chronic rejection in 13. Statistical analysis showed the CD20 expression was not associated with the age and gender of donors and recipients, regimen for immunosuppressive treatment, cold/warm ischemia time and secondary transplantation. CD20+ B cell infiltration predicts a poor prognosis of patients with kidney transplantation and is one of the risk factors of graft loss.

Open access

Dongyong Zhu, Zhong Li, Feng Xia and Yong Xu


In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.