In this paper we investigate the hypergraphs whose spectral radii attain the maximum among all uniform hypergraphs with given number of edges. In particular we characterize the hypergraph(s) with maximum spectral radius over all unicyclic hypergraphs, linear or power unicyclic hypergraphs with given girth, linear or power bicyclic hypergraphs, respectively.
Eplerenone is a drug that protects the cardiovascular system. 11α-Hydroxycanrenone is a key intermediate in eplerenone synthesis. We found that although the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system in Aspergillus ochraceus strain MF018 could catalyse the conversion of canrenone to 11α-hydroxycanrenone, its biocatalytic efficiency is low. To improve the efficiency of 11α-hydroxycanrenone production, the CYP monooxygenase-coding gene of MF018 was predicted and cloned based on whole-genome sequencing results. A recombinant A. ochraceus strain MF010 with the high expression of CYP monooxygenase was then obtained through homologous recombination. The biocatalytic rate of this recombinant strain reached 93 % at 60 h without the addition of organic solvents or surfactants and was 17–18 % higher than that of the MF018 strain. Moreover, the biocatalytic time of the MF010 strain was reduced by more than 30 h compared with that of the MF018 strain. These results show that the recombinant A. ochraceus strain MF010 can overcome the limitation of substrate biocatalytic efficiency and thus holds a high poten tial for application in the industrial production of eplerenone.