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Ying Yu

Abstract

In recent time, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore methods that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchanging process of corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed.

Open access

Ying Yu

Abstract

In recent years, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore a method that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchange through corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed. Besides, this study simulated the temperature field of the corrugated box during transportation. The temperature of the goods was changed through different cooling temperature to calculate the minimum energy consumption, so as to achieve the best refrigeration transport packaging program.

Open access

Ma Ying, Li Jing, Yu Guansheng and Yuan Dongyang

Abstract

In this paper, we use China’s 1986-2008 data to make an empirical analysis on the interrelationship between trade openness, economic growth and the structural change of labor-intensive industries by using simultaneous equation models and a VAR model. Our empirical study leads to the three conclusions. First, trade openness has accelerated economic growth, though with some negative impact on the development of labor-intensive industries; Second, economic growth has had a positive effect on trade openness, but again negatively impacted the development of labor-intensive industries. Third, the expansion of labor-intensive industries has had negative effects on both trade openness and economic growth.

Methodologically we rely on the transformation theory of industrial structure as an analytical framework to empirically study these three paradoxical outcomes. We introduce the three variables: trade openness, economic growth and the change of labor-intensive industries, as dependent as well as independent variables into our empirical models. And then we use technological progress, the share of secondary industries to GDP, total employment and investment ratio as control variables in order to test the robustness of the empirical results. In addition to explaining the factors responsible for changes in labor-intensive export industries we also provide two policy implications: First, labor-intensive industries should be scaled down to improve the efficiency of resources allocation. Second, China should timely transform its industrial structure of the export sectors from the one that is dominated by labor-intensive industries to the one that is dominated by capital (technology)-intensive industries so as to induce the export sectors to move in the direction favorable to the transformation of China’s present outward pattern of economic development.

Open access

Júlia Mičová, Zdeněk Remeš and Yu-Ying Chan

Abstract

The interest about zinc oxide is increasing thanks to its unique chemical and physical properties. Our attention has focused on preparation powder of 1D nanostructures of ZnO nanowires with precisely defined morphology include characterization size (length and diameter) and shape controlled in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have compared results of SEM with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. We have found out that SEM method gives more accurate results. We have proposed transformation process from ZnO nanowires on substrates to ZnO nanowires powder by ultrasound peeling to colloid followed by lyophilization. This method of the mass production of the ZnO nanowires powder has some advantages: simplicity, cost effective, large-scale and environment friendly.

Open access

Bo Hu, Yu-kun Jin, Wan-jiang Gu, Jun Liu, Hua-qin Qin, Chong Chen and Ying-yu Wang

Open access

Yun Wei, Ying Yu, Lifeng Xu, Wei Huang, Jianhua Guo, Ying Wan and Jinde Cao

Abstract

Vehicle emission calculation is critical for evaluating motor vehicle related environmental protection policies. Currently, many studies calculate vehicle emissions from integrating the microscopic traffic simulation model and the vehicle emission model. However, conventionally vehicle emission models are presented as a stand-alone software, requiring a laborious processing of the simulated second-by-second vehicle activity data. This is inefficient, in particular, when multiple runs of vehicle emission calculations are needed. Therefore, an integrated vehicle emission computation system is proposed around a microscopic traffic simulation model. In doing so, the relational database technique is used to store the simulated traffic activity data, and these data are used in emission computation through a built-in emission computation module developed based on the IVE model. In order to ensure the validity of the simulated vehicle activity data, the simulation model is calibrated using the genetic algorithm. The proposed system was implemented for a central urban region of Nanjing city. Hourly vehicle emissions of three types of vehicles were computed using the proposed system for the afternoon peak period, and the results were compared with those computed directly from the IVE software with a trivial difference in the results from the proposed system and the IVE software, indicating the validity of the proposed system. In addition, it was found for the study region that passenger cars are critical for controlling CO, buses are critical for controlling CO and VOC, and trucks are critical for controlling NOx and CO2. Future work is to test the proposed system in more traffic management and control strategies, and more vehicle emission models are to be incorporated in the system.

Open access

Jie-Bin Zhou, Ying-Ying Sun, Ying-Lin Zheng, Chu-Qin Yu, Hua-Qing Lin and Ji-Yan Pang

Abstract

In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane. Moreover, the molecular docking study of xyloketal A with activation region of the stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and the calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) 1 (STIM1-ORAI1) protein complex, the key domain of SOCE, revealed that xyloketal A exhibited a noncovalent interaction with the key residue lysine 363 (LYS363) in the identified cytosolic regions in STIM1-C. These findings provided useful information about xyloketal A as a SOCE inhibitor for further evaluation.

Open access

Hao Pan, Han-Bing Wang, Yi-Bin Yu, Bing-Chao Cheng, Xiao-Yu Wang and Ying Li

Abstract

Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF) process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM) in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

Open access

Bin Cao, Li Gu, Xiao-min Yu, Yu-Dong Yin, Chen Ma and Ying-mei Liu

Abstract

The role of corticosteroids in the management of severely ill patients with influenza A (H1N1) viral infection is unclear and controversial. Two critically ill cases with influenza A (H1N1) infections complicated with organizing pneumonia (OP) in 2011 successfully treated with low dose corticosteroids were reported here. After initial clinical improvement, the condition of both patients aggravated 20-23 days after the onset of illness. Chest X-ray and computed tomographies (CT) showed an increment of lung infiltrates. Cultures of blood, pleural fluid and transbronchial aspirate were negative for bacteria and fungi. Organizing pneumonia was diagnosed clinically and both patients were successfully treated with low-dose corticosteroids. Low-dose corticosteroids initiated during convalescence may be beneficial for severe swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (S-OIV) infections.

Open access

Tzu-Tai Lee, Jhih-Ying Ciou, Chung-Nan Chen and Bi Yu

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR) on performance, egg traits and oxidative status of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 22-week-old laying hens (Hendrix) were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups, each containing 30 birds, including 10 replicates per group and 3 birds per replicate. In addition, they were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group, corn-soybean meal), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% dried PESR groups for 8 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the different levels of dietary supplementation produced no significant differences in production performance among the experimental groups of laying hens. The Haugh unit was significantly higher in the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups compared to the control group. The eggs’ cholesterol content of the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups was significantly lower than that of the control group at 5-8 weeks. The blood triglyceride content and cholesterol content were significantly lower in the 1.0% and 2.0% PESR groups compared to the control group at the 4th and 8th weeks. Hence, the supplemented 1.0% and 2.0% of PESR groups showed higher levels for serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase during the experimental period in comparison with the control group. This study indicated that a by-product of Pleurotus eryngii, PESR, could produce lower-cholesterol eggs and improve the oxidative stability with 1.0% and 2.0% PESR supplementation in laying hens.