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  • Author: Ying Wan x
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Open access

Yun Wei, Ying Yu, Lifeng Xu, Wei Huang, Jianhua Guo, Ying Wan and Jinde Cao

Abstract

Vehicle emission calculation is critical for evaluating motor vehicle related environmental protection policies. Currently, many studies calculate vehicle emissions from integrating the microscopic traffic simulation model and the vehicle emission model. However, conventionally vehicle emission models are presented as a stand-alone software, requiring a laborious processing of the simulated second-by-second vehicle activity data. This is inefficient, in particular, when multiple runs of vehicle emission calculations are needed. Therefore, an integrated vehicle emission computation system is proposed around a microscopic traffic simulation model. In doing so, the relational database technique is used to store the simulated traffic activity data, and these data are used in emission computation through a built-in emission computation module developed based on the IVE model. In order to ensure the validity of the simulated vehicle activity data, the simulation model is calibrated using the genetic algorithm. The proposed system was implemented for a central urban region of Nanjing city. Hourly vehicle emissions of three types of vehicles were computed using the proposed system for the afternoon peak period, and the results were compared with those computed directly from the IVE software with a trivial difference in the results from the proposed system and the IVE software, indicating the validity of the proposed system. In addition, it was found for the study region that passenger cars are critical for controlling CO, buses are critical for controlling CO and VOC, and trucks are critical for controlling NOx and CO2. Future work is to test the proposed system in more traffic management and control strategies, and more vehicle emission models are to be incorporated in the system.

Open access

Bo Hu, Yu-kun Jin, Wan-jiang Gu, Jun Liu, Hua-qin Qin, Chong Chen and Ying-yu Wang

Open access

Dan-Dan Zhang, Pi Luo, Ying Chen, Zheng-Feng Wang, Wan-Hui Ye and Hong-Lin Cao

Abstract

Engelhardia roxburghiana is a common half evergreen tree with a wide distribution in southeast Asia. Despite its ecological and pharmaceutical values, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. Our objective was to develop nuclear microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic diversity within and among populations in the future. Using the microsatellite-enriched library and PCR-based screening method, 12 microsatellite markers were developed and showed polymorphism in a population. The number of alleles per locus for these 12 microsatellites ranged from four to 15. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.358 to 0.897 and from 0.369 to 0.886, respectively. The developed microsatellites will be useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure in E. roxburghiana.

Open access

Hong-Yu Niu, Wan-Hui Ye, Zheng-Feng Wang, Ying Chen, Hong-Lin Cao, Lin-Fang Wu and Zhang-Ming Wang

Abstract

Schima superba is a common dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forest in subtropical China. Despite its multiple usages in wood industry, reforestation and traditional Chinese medicine, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. To help studying its genetic diversity and structure in the future, after microsatellite enrichment and screening, we identified 16 microsatellites in S. superba. These markers showed polymorphism in three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 32 with a mean of 14. Within populations, the observed and unbiased expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.048 to 0.926 and from 0.048 to 0.949, respectively. The newly developed 16 microsatellites will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and structure from large scale patterns to fine-scale structures in this species.

Open access

Yin Bai-Shuang, Li Gao, Fu Lian-Jun, Fu Ying, Sha Wan-Li, Li Guo-Jiang and Wang Hong-Bin

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess whether atipamezole can restrain telazol/xylazine induced expression of c-fos in the rat brain. Rats were injected with a mixture of 13.81 mg/kg telazol and 5.21 mg/kg xylazine, following 10 min later 0.522 mg/kg atipamezole. Thereon, the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex were removed one hour after the last injection. The level of Fos protein was measured in the brain tissue by Westernblot. The results revealed that atipamezole attenuates telazol/xylazine induction of c-fos expression in the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex. The results indicated that atipamezole is able to inhibit telazol/xylazine-induced c-fos expression in the rat brain, thus protecting it from nerve damage.