To summarize the advances in antibiotic therapy for infection after the surgical installation of implants to treat internal fractures. Recent studies on antibiotic therapy for infection after the surgical installation of implants to internal fractures were reviewed and analyzed. In general, systematic antibiotics are selected based on the results of bacterial culture. The duration of antibiotic treatment lasts for no more than 4 to 6 weeks. Orally administered and intravenously injected antibiotics have similar efficacies. Orally administered antibiotics exhibit a lower incidence of complications and are less costly than intravenously injected antibiotics. In addition, the efficacy of daptomycin in the treatment of bone infection is problematic. Rifampicin or fluoroquinolone antibiotics should be jointly administered when infection with bacterial biofilms is likely to occur. Calcium sulfate is a typical topically applied antibiotic delivery vehicle that can be completely degraded, with good biocompatibility, bone conduction, and drug release. The rational, systematic, and combined topical application of antibiotics can effectively decrease the recurrence rates of infection after the surgical installation of implants to treat internal fractures and can improve the quality of life of patients.
In order to effectively solve condensation and icing problems of radiosonde in low-temperature environment at high altitude, humidity sensor heated automatic alternately to remove pollution and improve the measurement accuracy. Heat experiments obtained the curve of rising temperature and responsible time on heated twin humidity sensor in normal temperature and pressure, by expanded responsible curve to obtain heated model of twin heated humidity sensor and by the analysis of heating model, use DMC and PID control for heating respectively. Simulation results show that the DMC control meets the practical requirements of measure at high altitude.
In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane. Moreover, the molecular docking study of xyloketal A with activation region of the stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and the calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) 1 (STIM1-ORAI1) protein complex, the key domain of SOCE, revealed that xyloketal A exhibited a noncovalent interaction with the key residue lysine 363 (LYS363) in the identified cytosolic regions in STIM1-C. These findings provided useful information about xyloketal A as a SOCE inhibitor for further evaluation.
Effect of Stubble Heights and Treatment Duration Time on the Performance of Water Dropwort Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWS)
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) with Water Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) were established in winter to investigate their potential role in the purification of eutrophicated water, and to identify the effects of different stubble heights of the Water Dropwort on the performance of the FTWs. The results of the experiments demonstrated: The Water Dropwort FTWs were effective in buffering the pH of the experimental water. The Water Dropwort FTWs were efficient in purifying eutrophicated water, with removal rate for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+ - N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3- - N) at 91.3, 58.0, 94.6, and 95.5% in the 15-day experiment, respectively. No significant difference in the purification effect was found among different stubble heights of Water Dropwort FTWs. Significant differences between the zero control and the FTWs were found for the removal of TP in the first 11 days; and for the removal of NH4+ - N in the first 4 days. No significant difference was found between the zero control and the FTWs for NO3- - N in the first 4 days, but significant difference was detected after day 4. The optimum treatment duration time for the FTWs with Water Dropwort will depend on the nutrients to be removed. These results will provide basis for further application of the FTWs at large scale, as well as for future studies on the mechanism of nutrient removal process.
In this paper, a new method based on phase congruency is proposed to measure pitch lengths and surface braiding angles of two-dimensional biaxial braided composite preforms. Lab space transform and BM3D (block-matching and 3D filter) are used first to preprocess the original acquired images. A corner detection algorithm based on phase congruency is then proposed to detect the corners of the preprocessed images. Pitch lengths and surface braiding angles are finally measured based on the detected corner maps. Experimental results show that our method achieves the automatic measurement of pitch lengths and the surface braiding angles of biaxial braided composite preforms with high accuracy.
Background: Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) is a novel adipocytokine. Several studies have indicated that vaspin may exert an important role in the development of metabolic disorders.
Objective: Evaluate serum vaspin and its relation to clinical parameters in newly and previously diagnosed Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) females as a case-control study.
Materials and methods: One hundred twenty female participants (newly and previously diagnosed T2DM patients) were recruited from an affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University. Sixty healthy female volunteers from various communities were included as controls. Anthropometric parameters, serum fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile, HbA1c, and vaspin were measured in each participant.
Results: Serum vaspin levels were significantly lower in previously diagnosed T2DM patients (0.51±0.29 ng/mL) than in newly diagnosed T2DM patients (0.62±0.28 ng/mL) and healthy controls (0.69±0.31 ng/mL). However, there was no difference in serum vaspin between newly diagnosed T2DM patients and healthy controls. In multiple linear regression analysis, serum vaspin was significantly and positively associated with HbA1c in both newly and previously diagnosed T2DM patients, negatively associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in previously diagnosed patients, and positively correlated with age and body mass index in healthy controls.
Conclusion: Serum vaspin was significantly lower in previously diagnosed T2DM patients than in newly diagnosed T2DM patients and healthy controls. Serum vaspin might be a predictor of poor glucose control and insulin resistance in T2DM.
Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of brain magnetic resonance imaging in detecting central nervous system diseases among AIDS patients of different levels of T cells.
Methods Total of 164 AIDS patients who did not receive antiviral treatment were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline CD4+ T cell counts. Group A had CD4+ T cell below or equal to 50 cells/μl (n = 81) and group B had CD4+ T cells over 50 cells/μl (n = 83). All patients underwent brain MRI scan. Imaging analysis and the prevalence of the central nervous system disorders were compared between two groups.
Results Among them 48 cases were found of abnormal brain MRI, group A was higher than group B (35.8% vs. 22.9%) although without statistical significance (P = 0.065). Altogether 48 cases were diagnosed as AIDS related central nervous system disorders based on clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory findings. The prevalence of CNS disorders was higher in group A than in group B (41.9% vs. 16.8%) with statistical significance (P < 0.01).
Conclusions The patients with CD4+ T cell count less than or equal to 50 cells/μl had high prevalence of CNS diseases. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of CNS diseases in advanced AIDS patients. This study suggests patients with low CD4+ T cell count (≤ 50/μl) should routinely undergo MRI examination.
Objective: To identify the common sites and risk factors of community-associated infections in Chinese patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: The Wanfang, CNKI, PUBMED and VIP databases restricting to Chinese patients with diabetes were queried without restriction to time period. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the risk factors of community-associated infections in Chinese patients with diabetes were considered. Polled odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used for each factor in fixed or random-effect metaanalyses. Results: Twelve studies were identified that investigated seven risk factors of community-associated infections in Chinese patients with diabetes. The average infection incidence was 39.55%. The respiratory tract and urology tract were the predilection sites. Meta-analysis results are as follows: Diabetic patients with chronic complications (OR: 1.63; 95% CI 1.45-1.82), advanced age (OR: 1.30; 95% CI 1.19-1.42), longer duration (OR: 1.47; 95% CI 1.35-1.61) or ketoacidosis (OR: 1.37; 95% CI 1.13-1.66) were more prone to suffer from infections. Those with better glycemic control (OR: 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76) or males (OR: 0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.75) were less prone to suffer from infections. Conclusion: Chinese patients with diabetes had a high incidence of community-associated infections. We should highlight the risk factors that might provide a reference for the same.