To summarize the advances in antibiotic therapy for infection after the surgical installation of implants to treat internal fractures. Recent studies on antibiotic therapy for infection after the surgical installation of implants to internal fractures were reviewed and analyzed. In general, systematic antibiotics are selected based on the results of bacterial culture. The duration of antibiotic treatment lasts for no more than 4 to 6 weeks. Orally administered and intravenously injected antibiotics have similar efficacies. Orally administered antibiotics exhibit a lower incidence of complications and are less costly than intravenously injected antibiotics. In addition, the efficacy of daptomycin in the treatment of bone infection is problematic. Rifampicin or fluoroquinolone antibiotics should be jointly administered when infection with bacterial biofilms is likely to occur. Calcium sulfate is a typical topically applied antibiotic delivery vehicle that can be completely degraded, with good biocompatibility, bone conduction, and drug release. The rational, systematic, and combined topical application of antibiotics can effectively decrease the recurrence rates of infection after the surgical installation of implants to treat internal fractures and can improve the quality of life of patients.