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Open access

Qiong Yi, Xin Li, Yuan-Fang Li, Hang Yang, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Zhe Ma and Lu Wang


Introduction: The effects of Jin-Ying-Tang (JYT) on Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling transduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in vitro were examined. Material and Methods: The cytotoxicity of JYT (0.06-62.50 mg/mL) on mouse MECs was determined by MTT assay. The MECs were co-cultured with LPS in the presence or absence of JYT (39.10 μg/mL, 391 μg/mL, 3910 μg/mL). The concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and downstream TLR4 signalling molecules such as myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), inhibitor κB (IκB), and nuclear factor κB inducing kinase (NIK) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The results showed that the IC50 of JYT on MECs was 12.25 mg/mL and JYT could significantly decrease the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated MECs (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, IκB, and NIK was also significantly decreased when the LPS-stimulated MECs were cocultured at appropriate concentrations of JYT (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion: These observations indicate a potential mechanism through which JYT attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells by inhibiting the activation of TLR4/MyD88/ TRAF-6/NIK pathway at the mRNA level.

Open access

Alfotih Gobran, Fang Cheng Li, Xin Ke Xu and Shang Yi Zhang


Background and purpose: As the postoperative recurrence of meningioma can have devastating effects, it is important to identify factors that can be used to predict this type of tumor recurrence.

Material and methods: We have performed a retrospective study involving 138 patients who were surgically treated for intracranial meningioma between 2005 and 2010. The patient population consisted of 80 females and 58 males, with an age range of 23 to 77 years old (mean age = 52 years). We measured associations between meningioma recurrence and clinical features (age, sex, extent of resection, histological type), or radiological features (tumor size, location, shape, calcification, bone changes, brain tumor interface, tumor necrosis, and MRI enhancement).

Results: We found statistically higher levels of postoperative meningioma recurrence in patients with high Simpson grade resections, high histological types, tumor diameters > 5 cm, tumors located in the base of the skull or the parasagittal sinus, tumors with unclear border, irregular enhancements on MRI, edema around the tumor, bleeding and necrosis within the tumor, and irregularly shaped tumors (e.g., lobulated or mushroom-shaped). In addition, calcification, age, sex, bone change, and dural tail sign provided no predictive value. C

onclusions: We have shown that histological type, degree of resection, bleeding, necrosis, edema, irregular enhancement, location, shape, size, and margin serve as strong predictors for the postoperative recurrence of meningioma tumors.

Open access

Alfotih Gobran Taha, Fang Cheng Li, Xin Ke Xu and Shang Yi Zhang


Objective : The mortality of re-bleeding is high and patients surviving are usually in poor clinical condition and have a worse outcome than patients with single bleed. We performed an update systemic review and Meta-analysis to determine the most common risk factors for re-bleeding in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

Method: We reviewed all publications on the risk factors of the re-bleeding or rerupture of already bled intracranial aneurysms. This Meta analysis included studies published from the year 2000 until 2013. Pooled mean difference was calculated for the continuous variables (Age), and pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for categorical factors. Heterogeneity was tested first. If it is significant (p<0.05), random effect model was applied, otherwise, fixed model was used. Software - Review manager was used to find pooled effects and perform significant test for each potential risk factor.

Results : We identified 174 articles. Only 7 retrospective studies had met the inclusion criteria, with 2470 patients, 283 patients had aneurysmal re-bleeding. The weighted average rate of re-bleeding is 11.3% with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.1-12.6. Statistically significant risk factor for re-bleeding were sex (OR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.92), high systolic blood pressure [SBP] (OR 2.52; 95% CI: 1.40, 4.53), aneurysm size (OR 3.00; 95% CI: 2.06- 4.37), clinical condition (Hunt & Hess) (OR 4.94; 95% CI: 2.29, 10.68), and Fisher Grade (OR 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.61).

Conclusion: Sex, high SBP, high Fisher Grade, aneurysm size larger than 10 mm, and patients with poor clinical condition (Hunt & Hess) were independent risk factors for aneurysmal re-bleeding. The importance of early aneurysm intervention should be emphasized to eliminate the risk of re-bleeding and poor outcome.

Open access

Alfotih Gobran, Fang-Cheng Li, Xin-Ke Xu and Shang-Yi Zhang


Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) formation mechanism is very complex, and has not entirely understood. It represents a frequent type of intracranial hemorrhage, and is very common disease in Neurosurgery practice, especially in older patients. Various surgical treatments have been proposed for the treatment of CSDH. The rate of recurrence in CSDH after surgery ranges from 5% to 30%, repeated surgery must be considered. But in some cases subdural collections are still persistent. Endovascular embolization of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is an option for treatment of refractory CSDH. We review all cases that were treated with embolization to assess the effect of this intervention. Our review revealed 6 papers with a total enrollment of 14 patients were treated with MMA embolization for refractory chronic subdural hematoma without any postoperative complication or recurrence. In this study we suggest MMA embolization as an alternative for treatment of non-curable CSDH, especially for old people with systematic diseases, who cannot tolerate repeat surgery.

Open access

Gobran Taha Ahmed Alfotih, Fang-Cheng Li, Xin-Ke Xu and Shang-Yi Zhang


Background: Due to insufficient data in the literature, the optimal timing for surgical intervention for ruptured intracranial aneurysms is still controversial. Some practitioners advocate early surgery, but others not. It is important to identify other factors that can be used to predict poor prognosis in ruptured intracranial aneurysm patients. Objective: To determine the influence of timing of clipping surgery, and other factors on the outcomes of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in Hunt & Hess I~III grade patients. Method: We have performed a retrospective study involving 80 patients who were surgically treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysm between 2007 and 2012. The patient population consisted of 50(62.5%) females and 30(37.5%) males, with an age range of 12 to 75 years old, mean age 52.33 ± 10.63 years. We measured association between the Glasgow Outcome Scores and Sex, timing of clipping surgery, aneurysm location and pre-operative patient's neurological condition using famous Hunt and Hess grade system. Results: We did not find any correlation between the outcomes of ruptured intracranial aneurysm patients and timing (early, intermediate, late stage) of clipping, sex, aneurysm location. Whereas there is a significant correlation between patients outcomes and pre-operative patient neurological condition (Hunt & Hess grade). Conclusion: Timing of Surgery (early, intermediate, late) does not affect outcomes in low Hunt and Hess grade patients I~III. Whereas neurological condition (Hunt & Hess) has strong impact on postoperative outcomes. Others factors like sex, Age, Aneurysm location have no effect on outcomes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

Open access

Yi Wang, Yi-Zheng Fan, Xiao-Xin Li and Fei-Fei Zhang


A graph in a certain graph class is called minimizing if the least eigenvalue of its adjacency matrix attains the minimum among all graphs in that class. Bell et al. have identified a subclass within the connected graphs of order n and size m in which minimizing graphs belong (the complements of such graphs are either disconnected or contain a clique of size n/2 ). In this paper we discuss the minimizing graphs of a special class of graphs of order n whose complements are connected and contains exactly one cycle (namely the class Uc n of graphs whose complements are unicyclic), and characterize the unique minimizing graph in Uc n when n ≥ 20.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao



Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods

Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).


During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.


The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Gui-lin Yang, Ying-xia Liu, Mu-tong Fang, Wei-long Liu, Xin-chun Chen, John Nunnari, Jing-jing Xie, Ming-feng Liao, Ming-xia Zhang, Guo-bao Li, Pei-ze Zhang, Yi Guan and Boping Zhou


Objective To explore whether age, disease severity, cytokines and lymphocytes in H1N1 influenza A patients correlate with viral load and clearance.

Methods Total of 70 mild and 16 severe patients infected with H1N1 influenza A virus were enrolled in this study.

Results It was found that the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly higher viral loads and prolonged viral shedding periods compared with the patients over 14 years old and mild patients, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly lower Th17 cell frequency than the patients over 14 years old and mild patients (P < 0.01). The viral shedding period inversely correlated with the frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells. Additionally, the decreased concentration of serum TGF-β correlated with the decreased frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.

Conclusions Both younger and severe patients are associated with higher viral loads and longer viral shedding periods, which may partially be attributed to the impaired Th17 cell response.

Open access

Guo-liang Zhang, Jian-bo Ding, Shuang-jie Li, Xi Zhang, Yi Xu, Hua-sheng Yang, Dan Wei, Qin Li, Qing-sheng Shi, Qing-xiong Zhu, Tong Yang, Zi-qiang Zhuo, Yi-mei Tian, Hao-jie Zheng, Liu-ping Tang, Xin-ying Zou, Tao Wen and Xiu-hui Li

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.

Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.

Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.

Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.